the greeks. ancient greece minoan civilization (c. 2000- 1400 bce) –crete mycenaean civilization...

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  • The Greeks
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  • Ancient Greece Minoan Civilization (c. 2000- 1400 BCE) Crete Mycenaean Civilization (c. 1600-1200 BCE) Greek mainland
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  • Minoan Civilization Knossos: Palace of Minos Minotaur: half-man and half-bull, born of bull & Minos queen Minotaur lived in labyrinth designed by Daedalus
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  • Myth of Daedalus & Icarus Daedalus locked in tower by King Minos Escapes by making wax wings for himself and his son Icarus Icarus departs from father and flies too high The wax melts and Icarus falls to his death Daedalus reaches Sicily in safety
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  • Brueghel, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, 1558
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  • Myth of Theseus &Ariadne Greek hero Theseus kills the Minotaur with the help of Ariadne, daughter of King Minos Ariadne gives Theseus a sword and thread to find his way out After killing Minotaur, Theseus escapes with Ariadne
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  • Myth of Theseus &Ariadne On the way back to Athens, Theseus & Ariadne stop on island of Naxos Ariadne falls asleep and Theseus abandons her
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  • Vanderlyn, Ariadne Abandoned, 1814
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  • Mycenaean Civilization At Mycenae militant and aggressive (72) C.1400 BCE: Mycenaeans absorb Crete c. 1200 BCE, Mycenaeans attack Troy in Asia Minor: 10 year war Soon after, Dorians destroy Mycenaean civilization Dark Ages
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  • Homer Legendary blind poet, author of Iliad and Odyssey, Greek epics Homer represents oral tradition that was eventually written down in 9 th century BCE
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  • Iliad Wrath of Achilles Focuses on arete: heroic action to prove virtueeven if the consequence is death, and even in the face of the gods
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  • Simile & Epithet Simile: See Book 18.113-116, 133-139 Epithets: swift Antilochus (18.2); the great Achilles (18.33); man-killing hands of Priam (24.7); great godlike Achilles (24.186); old and noble Priam (24.263); brilliant Achilles (24.316)
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  • David, The Funeral of Petroclus, 1778
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  • Twombly, Achilles Mourning the Death of Petroclus, 1962
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  • Hesiod, Theogony (700 B.C.E.) Zeus, Hera, etc., live on Mount Olympus meddle in human affairs no clear moral or religious system no guarantee of afterlifefocus is on being remembered for ones actions in this life Thus, Greek culture celebrates individual glory and individual responsibility
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  • Greek Politics and Society During the Homeric Age, heroes are celebrated: it is an aristocratic age Ca. 750 BCE: the rise of the polis: Greek city-state Athens, Thebes, Marathon, Corinth, Sparta, etc. About 200 of them
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  • City-states City-states are self-governing, self- defending Take their own colonies Compete with one another
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  • Persian Wars, 499-480 BCE Greek city-states unite to defend themselves against Persia Battle of Marathon, 490 BCE, Greeks defeat an army of Persians 2X bigger After Persian Wars, Athens becomes predominant Greek polis
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  • Greek Golden Age: 480-430 BCE Oligarchy (elite minority) Democracy (gov. by the people, demos) Solon (ca.638-558 BCE): spread democracy: involved lower classes in gov. Ca.550 BCE: Popular Assembly 508 BCE: Popular Assembly can make laws
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  • Greek Government Structure Board of Ten Generals Council of Five Hundred (aristocratic bureaucracy) Popular Assembly of Citizens
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  • Democracy? Citizen = landowning males over 18 Total population: 250,000 Citizens: 40,000 Actually attended Assembly: 5,000 Women, children, resident aliens, slaves: 150,000
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  • Agora= open air market
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  • Pericles (ca.495-429 BCE) Leading supporter of Athenian democracy Many public offices filled by lottery Delian League: defensive alliance Pericles moves funds from Delos to Athens Angers Sparta
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  • Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 BCE) Athens vs. Sparta Sparta not democratic, more militaristic than Athens Athens loses to Sparta
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  • Pericles, Funeral Sermon Athenians are interested in public affairs Athenians respect written and unwritten laws Athenians value thinking/discussion before action Athenians value the individual Athenian
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  • Aristotle, Poetics Unites of action and time Tragedy: imitation of an action arousing pity and fear leading to catharsis (purgation) Hero better than the ordinary man His downfall must not lie in any depravity, but in some great error on his part (94-95)
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  • Pre-Socratic Philosophers Scientific thinkers asking what the world is made of and how it came into existence Thales: water Heraclitus: flux, changedictated by Form or Guiding Force Leucippus of MiletusLeucippus of Miletus: atoms DemocritusDemocritus: atoms make up the mind too
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  • Pre-Socratic Philosophers Pythagoras: proportion (numbers) Hippocrates: father of medicine Humours: blood, phlegm, black bile, yellow bile
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  • Sophists Not scientists but metaphysicians: concerned with how we know Traveled around to teach people Focused on rhetoric more than truth They thrived in a democracy where the ability to persuade was important
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  • Protagoras (ca. 485-410 BCE) A sophist Man is the measure of all things
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  • Socrates (ca. 470-399 BCE) A stonemason who walked around Athens talking to people: a gadfly Opposed the sophistry: the use of clever argument Instead: Know thyself the unexamined life is not worth living To know the good is to do the good
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  • Plato (ca. 428-ca. 347 BCE) We know Socrates through Plato Socrates is a character in Platos dialogues Through dialectical method (question and answer method) one moves closer and closer to the truth
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  • Platos Theory of the Forms All sense experience is an imperfect copy of the Forms. A ball, for example, is an imperfect copy of the Form of the Sphere. The Forms derive from the ultimate Form, the Form of the Good
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  • Platos Theory of the Forms the psyche, or soul, comes from the world of the Forms, while the soma, or body, is trapped in the sensory world. Where do we get the idea of the perfect sphere? Plato would say we get it from our souls connection to the perfect world of Forms.
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  • Allegory of the Cave In the Republic Allegory: story with figurative or hidden meaning story (allos=other + agoreuein=to speak publicly < agora=marketplace) A parable for the movement from sense experience to the Form of Goodness
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  • Allegory of the Cave
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  • Platos Political Views Anti-democratic Philosopher-kings should rule (could be women) Philosophers are fit to rule, soldiers to fight, laborers to work (mind, heart, hands) The goal of society is not the happiness of the individual but to bring society as a whole as close as possible to the good
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  • Platos Political Views Education for both men and women, according to their abilities No private property In Platos republic, no poets are allowed
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  • What, no poets? Thats right, no poets. Why? Plato says poets: 1) lie; they dont know or tell the truth 2) lead children and youth away from knowledge 3) they offer not ideas, or images of ideas, but images of images of ideas
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  • Aristotle (384-322 BCE) Student of Plato Rejected Platos Theory of Forms, thought that mind and matter are connected Empirical method: direct experience Syllogism End of life is happiness, the good life
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  • Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics the object of our inquiry is not to know the nature of virtue but to become ourselves virtuous It is necessary therefore to consider the right way of performing actions The Golden Mean: the mean between extremes
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  • Aristotle, Politics the best government is constitutional and ruled by the middle classthose who would be least likely to govern out of self- interest man (Aristotle does not include or exclude women here) is a political animal
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  • Aristotle, Politics [The] state is by nature clearly prior to the family and to the individual, since the whole is of necessity prior to the part.... The proof that the state is a creation of nature and prior to the individual is that the individual, when isolated, is not self- sufficing; and therefore he is like a part in relation to the whole.
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  • Aristotle, Politics We tend to think of society as a creation of individuals, but according to Aristotle, society comes first, and what we call the individual presupposes the existence of society. The individual doesnt exist without society. The individual does not cr


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