the golden age of the dutch republic

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The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic. European History Kagan, Ch. 15. Dutch Republic. Government: Republic (States-General) – gained independence from Spain in 1648 (P of W); practiced international diplomacy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Government: Republic (States-General) gained independence from Spain in 1648 (P of W); practiced international diplomacy other republics at this time: Swiss cantons, Genoa, Venice and England (for a time, think Cromwell)Build strong national identityGreat cultural & intellectual achievements

  • State religion = CalvinismBUT Dutch Calvinism does NOT control the state policyno one majority religionlarge Catholic minority private worship onlyLutheransMennonites welcomeJewsCalvinist calling aids in the economic miracle

    The Dutch Republic was founded by Calvinists who built an intolerant Calvinist theocracy.

    Calvinist precepts of leading a God-fearing, productive, thrifty life had no direct impact on the Dutch.

  • Rembrandts The Syndics of the Clothmakers Guild, 1662Vermeers The Geographer, 1668Economic wealth: banking, stock market, international trade

  • Population and wage increasesGrain from Poland = ability to focus on other agricultural productsButter, cheese, hops, livestock, fishingOther industries boomLand reclamation, urban construction work, printing and engraving, shipbuildingc. Agriculture and fishing served only as a nutritious food supply in the Dutch Republic.

    d. The Dutch Republic had a primarily agricultural economy with little interest in other industries.

  • major European freight carrier between Spain, France, England, and the Baltic1660 = 10,000 ships; throughout 17th century owned majority of European shipping1609 founded the Bank of Amsterdam & established the most sought after currency (gold Dutch guilder)Amsterdam financial center of Europe until French RevolutionStock Market is born in Amsterdam

  • ~1600 reach Japan, after 1641 Dutch sole Europeans in Japan1602 Dutch East India Company1612 Manhattan Island 1616 Willem Schouten & Jacob le Maire round Cape Horn (Kaap Hoorn)1619 Batavia, Java (Jakarta)1621 Dutch West India Company: Spanish/Portuguese Americas1652 captured the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)e. The Dutch Republic had no trade contact with Spain due to their long on-going political and religious battles.

    f. The Dutch Republic had no interest in establishing trade in East Asia.

  • International law: Hugo Grotius Law of War and Peace "I saw in the whole Christian world a license of fighting at which even barbarous nations might blush. Wars were begun on trifling pretexts or none at all, and carried on without any reference of law, Divine or human.Scientists: Leeuwenhoek & Swammerdam microscopic world, biologyHuyghens physics & mathematics, telescopic improvements, wave theory of light, pendulum clock

  • Scholarly writing: Bekker World Bewitched debunked witchcraft mythAnna Maria van Schurman The Learned Maid or Whether a Maid May Be Called a ScholarDutch Realism: Frans Hal, Jan Vermeer, Rembrandt

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