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  • The FoodChemistryLaboratory

    A Manual for Experimental Foods,Dietetics, and Food Scientists

    SECONDEDITION

  • CRC Series inCONTEMPORARY FOOD SCIENCEFergus M. Clydesdale, Series EditorUniversity of Massachusetts, Amherst

    Published Titles:Americas Foods Health Messages and Claims:Scientific, Regulatory, and Legal IssuesJames E. Tillotson

    New Food Product Development: From Concept to MarketplaceGordon W. Fuller

    Food Properties HandbookShafiur Rahman

    Aseptic Processing and Packaging of Foods:Food Industry PerspectivesJarius David, V. R. Carlson, and Ralph Graves

    The Food Chemistry Laboratory: A Manual for Experimental Foods, Dietetics,and Food Scientists, Second EditionConnie M. Weaver and James R. Daniel

    Handbook of Food Spoilage YeastsTibor Deak and Larry R. Beauchat

    Food Emulsions: Principles, Practice, and TechniquesDavid Julian McClements

    Getting the Most Out of Your Consultant: A Guideto Selection Through ImplementationGordon W. Fuller

    Antioxidant Status, Diet, Nutrition, and HealthAndreas M. Papas

    Food Shelf Life StabilityN.A. Michael Eskin and David S. Robinson

    Bread StalingPavinee Chinachoti and Yael Vodovotz

    Interdisciplinary Food Safety ResearchNeal M. Hooker and Elsa A. Murano

    Automation for Food Engineering: Food Quality Quantizationand Process ControlYanbo Huang, A. Dale Whittaker, and Ronald E. Lacey

  • CRC PR ESSBoca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.

    The FoodChemistryLaboratory

    A Manual for Experimental Foods,Dietetics, and Food Scientists

    Connie M. WeaverJames R. DanielDepartment of Foods and NutritionPurdue UniversityWest Lafayette, Indiana

    SECONDEDITION

  • This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated.A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the authors and the publisher cannotassume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.

    Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,microlming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.

    The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specic permissionmust be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying.

    Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431.

    Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identication and explanation, withoutintent to infringe.

    Visit the CRC Press Web site at www.crcpress.com 2003 by CRC Press LLC

    No claim to original U.S. Government worksInternational Standard Book Number 0-8493-1293-0

    Library of Congress Card Number 2002038797

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataWeaver, Connie, 1950-

    The food chemistry laboratory : a manual for experimental foods, dietetics, and food scientists. 2nd ed. / Connie Weaver and James Daniel.

    p. cm. (Contemporary food science)Includes index.ISBN 0-8493-1293-0 (alk. paper)1. FoodAnalysisLaboratory manuals. 2. FoodCompositionLaboratory manuals. I.

    Daniel, James. II. Title. III. CRC series in contemporary food science.

    TX541 .W43 2003664'.07dc21 2002038797

    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.

    To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledgescollection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.

    ISBN 0-203-00952-5 Master e-book ISBN

  • Foreword

    These laboratory exercises have been designed to illustrate some of the chemical and physicalprinciples discussed in lectures. The laboratory experience should provide a more detailed knowledgeof methods and equipment used in food research and also should provide an opportunity for thestudent to become familiar with the main journals in which food research is reported. The studentwill learn to keep a laboratory notebook; in addition, the student will become familiar with thefundamentals of designing, executing, and reporting the results of a research project.

    The student is expected to read the laboratory procedures before class so that he or she mayperform experiments more efficiently and understand the reason for the results obtained. A cleanuniform or lab coat must be worn in the laboratory. Hair must be controlled when sensory evaluationis involved. All equipment must be cleaned and stored properly after experimentation.

    Any laboratory accident must be reported immediately to the instructor. Locate the carbon dioxidefire extinguisher and be sure you know how to use it. Do not take any chances when a fire starts:use the extinguisher.

    We are grateful to Karen Jamesen for her contributions to the laboratory on pectin and to EltonAberle and John Forrest for their contributions to the myoglobin experiment.

    C.M. WeaverWest Lafayette, Indiana

    J.R. DanielWest Lafayette, Indiana

  • The Authors

    Connie Weaver, Ph.D., is professor and head of foods and nutrition at Purdue University, WestLafayette, Indiana. She joined Purdue in 1978 and became head of the department in 1991.

    Dr. Weaver grew up in Oregon. All three of her degrees are in food science and human nutritionwith minors in chemistry and plant physiology. She received her B.S. and M.S. from Oregon StateUniversity and her Ph.D. from Florida State University.

    Dr. Weavers research is on minerals important to human health. Current projects include(1) chemical form of minerals in foods, (2) mineral bioavailability, (3) calcium metabolism in adoles-cents, (4) exercise and bone mass in young women, and (5) exercise and iron status in young women.Dr. Weaver has contributed more than 150 research publications and book chapters. Dr. Weaver hasbeen the recipient of many research grants from the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Departmentof Agriculture, and various commodity groups and industries.

    For her contributions in teaching food chemistry, Dr. Weaver was awarded Purdue UniversitysOutstanding Teaching Award and the schools Mary L. Matthews Teaching Award. She has served asa scientific lecturer and on the executive committee for the Institute of Food Technologists. She ispast president of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences and is on the board of trustees of theInternational Life Sciences Institute. She is on the editorial boards of the American Journal of ClinicalNutrition, the Academic Press Food Science and Technology Book Series, and Advances in Food andNutrition Research. She is also a member of the American Chemical Society, the American Associationfor Advancement of Science, the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, and the AmericanSociety for Bone and Mineral Research. She is a fellow of the American College of Nutrition.

    Dr. Weaver and Dr. Daniel are coauthors of the Functional Carbohydrates chapter in FoodChemistry: Principles and Applications, published by Science Technology Systems in 2000. Dr. Weaverco-authored the third edition of Foods: A Scientific Approach with Helen Charley; this book waspublished by Prentice-Hall in 1998.

    James Daniel, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Foods and Nutrition at Purdue University, WestLafayette, Indiana. He joined Purdue in 1980.

    Dr. Daniel grew up in Kansas. His degrees are in chemistry. He received his B.A. from KansasState Teachers College (now Emporia State University) and his Ph.D. from Texas A&M University.

    Dr. Daniels research is in the area of carbohydrates. Specifically, he has interests in low-caloriesucrose replacers derived from low-molecular-weight carbohydrates, low-calorie fat replacers derivedfrom high-molecular-weight carbohydrates, discovery and use of food gums to control the texture offoods, and Maillard browning in foods. Dr. Daniel has contributed to more than 35 research publicationsand book chapters. Dr. Daniel is a member of the Institute of Food Technologists and co-authoredthe Functional Carbohydrates chapter (with Dr. Weaver) in Food Chemistry: Principles and Applica-tions, published by Science Technology Systems in 2000.

  • Table of Contents

    1. Literature Search ........................................................................................................................1Abstracts and Indexes...................................................................................................................1Journals..........................................................................................................................................1Advances and Reviews .................................................................................................................1General ..........................................................................................................................................2Internet Sources of Information ...................................................................................................2

    2. Evaluation of Foods ...................................................................................................................5Color ..............................................................................................................................................5Texture....................................................................................................................................

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