The Fight for America. General Gage was after the ring leaders of the rebellions Patriot farmers and townspeople began practicing for a confrontation.
Post on 18-Jan-2016
The Fight for AmericaAmerican Revolution General Gage was after the ring leaders of the rebellions
Patriot farmers and townspeople began practicing for a confrontationPatriots watched British movements
People were to watch the Bell Tower in Christs Church in Boston
One if the British came by land and Two if By SeaLexington and Concord
April 18, 1775
Paul Revere and Bill Dawes head toward Lexington and ConcordThey were caught and arrested77 militiamen waited for the British8 militiamen were killed and the militia men were pushed back
Concord was warned Militia were ready (3,000 to 4,000)Guerilla Tactics were used. British retreat back to Boston
Lexington and ConcordAbout 700 British Army regulars, under Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith, were given secret orders to capture and destroy military supplies that were reportedly stored by the Massachusetts militia at Concord. Through effective intelligence gathering, Patriot colonials had received word weeks before the expedition that their supplies might be at risk, and had moved most of them to other locations. They also received details about British plans on the night before the battle, and were able to rapidly notify the area militias of the military movement.The first shots were fired just as the sun was rising at Lexington. The militia were outnumbered and fell back, and the regulars proceeded on to Concord, where they searched for the supplies. At the North Bridge in Concord, several hundred militiamen fought and defeated three companies of the King's troops. The outnumbered regulars fell back from the Minutemen after a pitched battle in open territory.
General Gage had his troops in Boston. He had heard that colonial civilians (minutemen) were stockpiling firearms and gun powder and he wished to strike back.
Battle of Lexington only lasts 15 minutes. Minutemen were ordered to move, they began doing so without laying down their weapons. Someone fired, British shot into the minutemen and 8 were killed (10 wounded)
British marched to Concord they found an empty arsenal. British soldiers lined up to turn back but were slaughtered. 3,000 4,000 minutemen fired using guerilla tactics. The British humiliated returned to Boston. While this was occurring Samuel Adams and John Hancock were fleeing deeper into the New England Countryside3June, 1775Took place on Breeds Hill"Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes.The Americans drove back two British charges before they ran out of ammunition. Americans fled with British 3rd charge.More than 1,000 British soldiers and about 400 Americans were killed or wounded.We won, they won
Battle of Bunker Hill
Continental Army was lead by 43 year old George Washington. Minutemen were part of the state militias. Continentals were members of the national army. Served longer than militias and were better trained
Proves to be the deadliest battle of the war
Winner: While the British drove the Americans from the Charlestown peninsula it was with heavy loss. The battle was at the time considered to be an American defeat but has since been lifted to the ranks of a heroic stands against forces of oppression.
However, the night before for nearly twelve hours the Americans had worked non-stop building their main fortification on Breed's Hill which lay at the foot of Bunker Hill to the north. Click map for larger view At daybreak on the 17th gazing through the morning fog, British General Howe was astonished to see a six-foot high earthwork a mushroom fortress that seemingly appeared overnight. "The rebels," he exclaimed, "have done more work in one night than my whole army would have done in one month." British cannons immediately opened fire from the ships offshore but the patriots continued work on the intrenchments without harm. By mid-afternoon General Howe ordered his troops to advance and open fire. As the British moved forward, the Americans remained as silent as the tomb. "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes," was the order passed along the lines. When that moment came, the word "FIRE!" was shouted, and whole enemy platoons were mowed down and shattered, retreating to the foot of the hill. Howe rallied his forces and repeated the attack with the same crushing results. Not to be discouraged, Howe rallied his men a third time, ordering them to use only their bayonets. After a desperate hand-to-hand struggle, the Americans were driven out. In that final assault American General Joseph Warren and British Major John Pitcairn were killed. While the exact number of casualties varies among historians, the Americans were estimated at 441 killed and wounded... with the British casualties at 1,150 killed and wounded.
Following the earlier skirmishes at Lexington and Concord, the battle of Bunker Hill was significant in that it overruled any real hope of conciliation. The outcome of the battle rallied the colonies and moved a lethargic Congress to take action. Bunker Hill showed the Americans that the British were not invincible. It showed the British Government that the "rebels" were a serious opponent, that "the mightiest army in all of Europe" had a real fight on its hands.
Occurred on Breeds Hill on June 17, 1775.
The Patriots were short on gunpowder and were warned, Dont fire until you see the whites of their eyes! (Coronel William Prescott)
The British won the battle, but lost over 1,000 troops.
This battle showed Britain that the Patriots would not be an easy enemy.
4Written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776Drew on ideas from John LockeNatural RightsConsent of the GovernedGrievancesInjustices of the Slave Trade
Declaration of Independence
The British thought that only New England was rebelling.If they took New York they could isolate New England and contain the fightingWashington knew of this plan and headed to New York
Washington and 23,000 colonial troops were almost cornered on Manhattan IslandAmericans were chased through New Jersey and PennsylvaniaNew York
- General Gage was replaced by British General Howe after the loss of so many casualties at the Battle of Lexington and Concord.
- Washingtons troops were untrained and poorly equipped even though there was a large number of them. Colonists suffer heavy casualties By fall 1776 Washington was down to only 8,000 troops (many of whom term was up on December 31st 1776. Washington needed a decisive victory to boost morale and keep people in the army6Trenton New Jersey was held by the HessiansHessians were German soldiers for hire (mercenaries)A fierce storm had eruptedThe Hessians were unprepared for an attack; celebrating holidayChristmas- 12/25/1776
Washington and 2,400 men crossed the Delaware River for a surprise attackTrenton brought the victory Washington needed; morale boosterBattle of Trenton
Washington needed a victory12/25/1776 a fierce storm eruptedWashington and 2,400 men crossed the Delaware River in tiny row boats with hopes of surprising the Hessians that were occupying Trenton for the BritishOnce they arrived, they travelled 9 miles through the snow, sleet and iceThe Hessians assuming no one would venture out in the storm had drunk to much rum and were sleeping it off when the Continentals arrivedWhen the battle was over (which was fairly brief) 30 Hessians were dead, 918 were captured and only 5 American soldiers had been lostWashington got the victory he needed
8 days later, he also won at Princeton 7The British under General Howe wanted the American capital in PhiladelphiaThe Continental Congress had to flee the city
Washington tried to block the British from entering the city at the Battle of Brandywine CreekWashington lost Battle Brandywine Creek
Although Howe had won he lacked killer instincthe was afraid to suffer heavy losses as were suffered at Bunker Hill
Although Howe won he was unable to destroy the morale and crush the AmericansWashington had left his right side open but Howe was to hesitant to go after it leaving the Continentals to escapeAlthough as they retreated much of their artillery was left as almost all of their horses had been killedWhen Washington retreats, Howe is welcomed into the city and receives hospitality from the Loyalists located there8British General Johnny Burgoyne planned to take the army from Canada to Albany New YorkBurgoyne took 8,000 men with himIn addition to various equipment The British get bogged down in the underbrush, trees, and gullies of the forestBattle of Saratoga
Continental Army appoints General Horatio Gates to lead this portion of the campaignHe is a very successful GeneralBurgoyne does not receive any reinforcements as plannedAmerican troops surround the British and he is forced to surrender to GatesBattle of Saratoga
Never again would the British send troops through the countrysideAmericans now had proof that they could winNow able to persuade France to Assist the U.S.A Turning Point in the WarSaratogaBen Franklin had been in France trying to gain money and support for the war. 11In 1778 the U.S. and France signed an allianceFrance recognized US independenceAgreed to assist the US until independence was achieved
Spain joined the fight in 1779Made the port of New Orleans available to AmericaGot Florida BackFrance and the Alliances
Negotiated by American diplomats such as Ben FranklinThe only motive for France was to reduce the power of the BritishAmericans agreed to keep all British territory capturedAgree there were no deals to be made with Britain without the consent of the otherGreat Britain declared war on France as a result12Located just outside Philadelphia, it was the sight of the winter camp for the ContinentalsProved to be a low pointHarsh weather, poor conditions, lacking supplies, disease and deserting was rampant.Despite the conditions, Baron Friedrich von Steuben (Prussian) drilled the soldiers, improved their discipline and they came out as a well trained army.
1778 Continental Army in Valley Forge Pennsylvania for Winter Camp10,000 medpoorly fed, clothed, housed2,500 died
Friedrich von Steuben was Prussian Claimed to make regular soldiers out of country bumpkins and turns them into a very effective fighting force
In addition, Marquis de Lafayette lobbies the French government to send reinforcements. He later leads the Virginia Command in the last years of the war13Focus turns to the SouthRegain a foothold there and then head North
1780 General Henry Clinton replaces General HoweHe and General Cornwallis bring 8,500 men to AmericaIn May of 1780 they take Charles Town South Carolina
British have much success in 1780 in 1781 the tide will change
British Change Their Strategy
After the embarrassment at Saratoga the British change their plans or operations to now focus on the south. The goal was to gain a foothold and then push northward
1778 British take over in Savannah Georgia1779 A Royal Governor re-takes control in Georgia
In 1780 General Henry Clinton replaces General Howe. Howe and General Cornwallis and 8,500 men come to America to focus on the campaign in the south.
In May 1780 they took Charlestown South Carolina
Throughout 1780 they are every successful. However in 1781 Cornwallis will make a fateful mistake14Battle of Cowpens(South Carolina)In January of 1781 British and American forces meet at Cowpens South Carolina. The Americans under Greene are victoriousOccurs 2 months after Cowpens Cornwallis wins but it costs him of his troopsBattle of Guilford Courthouse(North Carolina) 1781 the Carolinas
Washington had ordered Nathanial Greene (A General) to go south and harass (guerilla style) Cornwallis
The British outnumber the Americans but the Americans stand their ground
So angry about the loss at Cowpens the British attack Greene in North Carolina
He loses of his troops93 dead, 400 wounded and 26 missing
Although Cornwallis wins he abandons his plans to control the Carolinas. Instead he retreats to wait for reindforcements
15British General Charles Cornwallis sets up camp in Yorktown VirginiaTogether the French and Americans head toward Yorktown with 17,000 troopsThe British are surroundedBritish navy doesnt come to the aid of CornwallisAfter three weeks, October 18th 1781 Cornwallis surrendersBattle of Yorktown
Terms of the TreatyBritain recognized the 13 colonies as independent states.
The Americans regained their right to fish off the banks of Newfoundland
All debts owed by citizens of either nation to creditors of the other were to be paid.
Loyalists were not to be persecutedTreaty of Paris 1783
New Nation BoundariesOn the north by Canada and the Great Lakes
On the South by Spanish controlled Florida which extended then to the Mississippi River
On the east by the Atlantic Ocean
On the West by the Mississippi RiverTreaty of Paris 1783