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  • The Fermented Food

    Frenzy Dairy CNE, Oct 2017

    Monique Piderit, RD (SA)

    @MoniquePiderit

  • 1. Defining the Fermented Food

    – History of Fermented Foods

    – Fermented Food Around the World

    – Fermented food with and without live culture

    2. Fermented Dairy

    – Kefir

    – Maas

    – Yoghurt

    3. The Role of Fermented Dairy Foods in Health

    – Hypertension

    – Cardiovascular disease

    – Cancer

    – Weight

    – Gut Health

    4. Conclusion

    Outline

  • Type of food or beverage made by extensive microbial growth

    Defining Fermented Foods

    Lactic acid bacteria, moulds and yeasts (present or added)

    Improve preservation, taste, structure and nutritional value

    Fermented

    Foods

    Salameh et al, 2016; Praagman et al, 2015; Chilton et al, 2015

    The science of fermentation is called

    zymology.

    The first zymologist was Louis

    Pasteur.

    Oldest and most economical

    method of production and

    preservation of food.

  • History of Fermentation

    Foods underwent fermentation naturally, but today the addition of a

    starter culture has helped make fermentation more automated,

    reproducible, reliable and controlled. Chilton et al, 2015

    Over 3500 fermented foods, divided into 250 groups, make up 1/3 of

    foods in the human diet Tamang et al, 2016

    8000 years ago: Cheese making started in Tigris and Euphrates

    2000 – 4000 years ago: Wine making started in Ancient Egypt

    7000 years ago: Fermented foods consumed in Babylon

  • Kimchi

    Korean

    condiment

    made from

    cabbage

    Sauerkraut

    Germany

    Sour cabbage

    Kefir

    Russia

    Alcoholic milk

    with added

    kefir grains

    Kombucha

    Russia and

    China

    Black, green,

    white, oolong

    tea with sugar Maas

    South African

    sour milk

    Miso

    Japanese

    soybeans

    Yoghurt

    Greece or

    Turkey

    Around the World With Fermented Foods

    Cheddar and

    Stilton

    UK

    Fermented

    sausage

    Spain,

    Portugal, Italy

    and Greece

    Tamang et al, 2016; Chilton et al, 2015

  • Value of Fermented Foods

    Source of live,

    active cultures

    Improved

    taste, texture

    and

    digestibility of

    food

    Increase food

    safety and

    shelf-life

    Increase

    vitamins and

    bioactive

    compounds

    Remove/

    reduce toxins

    (mycotoxins)

    or anti-

    nutrients

    (tannins,

    phytic acid)

    Chelule et al, 2010; International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, 2016

  • ▪ Softens food texture and alters composition: ▪ Less energy/fuel for cooking

    ▪ Eliminates need of preservation (lowered pH improves

    shelf-life without refrigeration)

    ▪ Highly desirable where resources for cooking and

    preservation scarce

    ▪ Improves food quality: essential amino acids,

    vitamins and protein

    ▪ Generates income, improves food security

    ▪ Low cost technology in food preservation

    increases accessibility and availability

    ▪ Malnutrition: ▪ Complete food fortification programs from WHO

    ▪ Contribute to protein requirements

    ▪ Reduce childhood mortality

    Fermented food products play a significant socio-economic role in Africa

    Why Africa Needs Fermented Foods

    Franz et al, 2014; Chelule et al, 2010

  • Not all fermented

    foods are equal

    Fermented foods retaining live cultures

    Yoghurt and maas

    Kimchi and kefir

    Some cheeses

    Fresh sauerkraut

    Fresh sour dill pickles

    Traditional salami

    Water/ brine cured olives Fermented foods consumed without

    living cultures

    Most beer and wine

    Most soy sauce

    Chocolate

    Sourdough bread

    Tempeh International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, 2016

  • M aj

    or G

    ro up

    s of

    F er

    m en

    te d

    F oo

    ds Fermented cereals

    Fermented legumes

    Fermented roots and tubers

    Fermented vegetables and bamboo shoots

    Fermented and preserved meat products

    Fermented, dried and smoked fish products

    Miscellaneous fermented products

    Alcoholic beverages

    Fermented milk products: kefir, maas, yoghurt

    Tamang et al, 2015

  • Kefir

    Originated in the Tibetan or Mongolian mountains over 2000 years BC.

    Keif: Well-being or living well; considered a source of family wealth.

    Kefir grains with specific and complex mixture in a symbiotic relationship:

    LAB, acetic acid bacteria, lactose fermenting and non-fermenting yeast.

    Codex Alimentarius

    ▪ 2.7% protein

    ▪ 0.6% lactic acid

  • Over 300

    different

    microbial

    species in

    kefir

  • Production of Kefir

    Whole, low fat or fat free,

    pasteurised milk from cow, buffalo,

    goat, camel or sheep

    8 - 10C

    for 10 – 40 hours

    Grains separated from fermented milk by a sieve

    May be reused and thus more cost-effective

    During cooling, accumulation of

    CO2, ethanol and B complex

    vitamins and reduction of

    lactose content (30%)

    Rosa et al, 2017

  • P hy

    si ol

    og ic

    al E

    ffe ct

    s of

    K ef

    ir Rosa et al, 2017

    Kefir

    Insulin

    resistance

    Blood

    Pressure

    Colon

    cancer

    IBS

    Cholesterol

  • Amasi by Numbers (per 100g)

    3,7g total

    fat

    2.35g SFA

    At least

    1 x 107

    CFU/g of

    viable lactic

    acid

    162mg

    calcium

    190g

    potassium

    270kJ

    3.3g protein

    (R260: Min

    3.0g/100g)

    4.5g

    carbohydrate

    Per 100g

    Vorster et al, “Have milk, mass or yoghurt every day”: a food-based dietary guideline for South Africa, SAJCN, 2013

    R260 Regulations relating to the classification, packing and marking of diary.

    pH of less

    than 4.6

  • ▪ Lactic acid bacteria is the dominating

    microbe in maas: ▪ Leuconostoc

    ▪ Lactococcus

    ▪ Lactobacillus

    ▪ Commercial maas production: ▪ Lactococcus lactis lactis

    ▪ L. lactis cremoris

    ▪ Lb. plantarum

    ▪ E. faecalis

    ▪ Maas pasteurised after fermentation

    ▪ Shelf life of 21 days at 4C

    First scientific record of traditional maas production: 1939

    Originally prepared by storing unpasteurized cow's milk in calabashes,

    clay pots, milk-sacks, stone jars or baskets.

    Amazing Amasi

    Chelule et al, 2010; Osvik et al, 2013; Jans et al, 2014; Vorster et al, 2014

  • 11.00

    11.20

    11.40

    11.60

    11.80

    12.00

    12.20

    12.40

    320 000

    340 000

    360 000

    380 000

    400 000

    420 000

    440 000

    460 000

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    R/litreLitres per day Maas average sales volume per day and Average price per month

    Sales Volume per day Average price

    Amasi Average Sales Volume and Price

    Nielson, June 2017

  • Volume : source Danone.

    Yoghurt

    PCC

    4.66 Kg

    66%

    10%

    19%

    61.7%

    26.6%

    10.8 kg

    7.2 kg

    3.9 kg

    Population

    Avg HH monthly Income

    LSM 8-9

    LSM 4-7

    LSM 1-3

    10.1M

    36.3M

    5.2M

    Maas

    PPC

    2.8 kg

    4.7 kg

    4.2 kg

    3.84 Kg

    LSM 10 6%3.4M

    1.9%

    9.9%

    0.9 kg 0.8 kg

    R 38200

    R 21300

    R7300

    R 38200

    Total Population Category Consumption

    Low