# The evans-vigier field,B(3): Derivation of the de Broglie matter-wave equation from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation

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Foundations of Physics Letters, VoL 8, No. 5, 1995 THE EVANS-VIGIER FIELD, B(3): DERIVATION OF THE DE BROGLIE MATTER-WAVE EQUATION FROM THE HAMILTON-JACOBI EQUATION M. W. Evans Department of Physics University of North Carolina Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 Received August 8, 1994 The emergence of the Evans-Vigier f ie ld S (3} of vacuum electromagnetism has been accompanied by a novel charge quantization condition inferred from 0(3) gauge theory. This finding is used to derive the de Broglie matter-wave equation from the classical Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation of one electron in the electromagnetic f ield. The HJ equation is used with the charge quantization condition to show that, in a perfectly elastic photon-electron interaction, complete transfer of angular momentum occurs self-consistently, and the electron acquires the angular momentum ~ of the photon. In this l imit the electron travels infinitesimally near the speed of l ight, and its concomitant electromagnetic fields become indistinguishable from those of the uncharged photon. This result independently proves the val idity of the charge quantization condition and demonstrates unequivocally the existence of the vacuum f ield B (3) Key words: de Broglie equation, B (3) f ield. l . INTRODUCTION I t is well known that an electron translating inf in i - tesimally near the speed of l ight is accompanied by electro- magnetic fields which are indistinguishable [1,2] from those accompanying the photon. In this Letter, we consider an electron accelerated to re lat iv is t ic velocities by a photon, and in so doing, derive the quantized de Broglie matter-wave 0894-9875/9511000-048|$07.50/9 ~ 1995 Plenum Publishing Corporation 482 Evans equation [3] from the classical but correctly relativistic Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the electron in the electromag- netic field. The derivation depends on a novel charge quantization condition which is indicated by the novel Evans- Vigier field B (~). Recently, it has been shown [4] that the interaction of one electron with the electromagnetic field is described exclusively through an interaction Hamiltonian made up of the product of intrinsic electron spin angular momentum and the newly discovered [5-12] field B (3) of vacuum electro- magnetism. Similarly, the induction of orbital angular momentum in the electron is governed entirely by B (3) [6], acting at f i rs t and second order in B (), the magnetic flux density amplitude of the beam. B (3) therefore is an experi- mental observable because, if it were zero in the vacuum, the intrinsic and orbital electron spin could not form an interaction Hamiltonian with the electromagnetic field, and fundamental terms in the Dirac and Hamilton-Jacobi equations [6] of e in A~ would be zero incorrectly. In classical, relativistic mechanics, it can be shown [6,11] that the principle of least action leads to a characteristic I~/2 pro- f i le through which B (3) can be isolated unequivocally from the concomitant plane waves B (~) =B (2)" of vacuum electro- magnetism. Here I o is the power density of the beam (in W mr), and the magnetization (3) produced in an electron plasma by the magnetic flux density B (3) is proportional to TI/2 from the relativistic Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation ~0 [6] in the limit ~< eB( l (1) / I I o Here ~ is the beam angular frequency (rad s'), and e/m o is the charge to mass ratio of the electron. The condition (I) can probably be achieved experimentally with a straight- forward modification of the apparatus used by Deschamps et al. [13], a modification designed to increase the peak 3 GHz, microwave pulse power by a factor of at least f i f ty [12]. In the classical relativistic theory, however, as in its quantum counterpart, the spinning motion of one electron in the beam is governed entirely, under all conditions (and not only in the limit ( i ) ) , by s (3), and by no other field component. Therefore B (3} is a new fundamental field of vacuum electromagnetism, the f i rs t to be inferred [4-12] since Evans-Vigier B (3) Field 483 Maxwell. In Sec. 2, the charge quantization condition is used to derive the de Broglie matter-wave equation [3] from the classical Hamilton-Jacobi {HJ) equation. In Sec. 3, this result is used to write the relativistic factor of the HJ equation in terms of a photon-electron collision rather than a classical charge-field interaction; and thereby to show that, in the limit of a perfectly elastic collision between photon and electron, the latter self-consistently acquires an orbi ta l angular momentum ~ from the former. In th is l imi t the electron is accelerated to the speed of l ight and i ts concomitant electromagnetic f ie lds are indist inguishable from those of the uncharged photon. Therefore, the charge quantization condition, derived [12] independently using the fundamental theory [14] of gauge geometry, leads to a fu l l y con'sistent result , and provides a l ink between the classical HJ equation and quantized de Broglie matter-wave equation. 2. DERIVATION OF THE DE BROGLIEMATTER-WAVE EQUATION WITH THE CHARGE QUANTIZATION CONDITION By considering the classical, relativistic, motion of one electron in the electromagnetic field, the HJ equation can be used [6,11] to show that the induced orbital elec- tronic angular momentum of the electron is governed entirely by the Evans-Vigier field as follows: (2) Here ~ is the beam angular frequency and c the speed of light in the vacuum for a hypothetically massless photon. The de Broglie matter-wave equation emerges from Eq. (2) from a consideration of the relativistic factor (a) For vacuum electromagnetic radiation without mass, the flux density magnitude B (~ is related to the magnitude of the vector potential, A ~), by 484 BIl = ~A(ol =KAsol,. (4) c so the classical re lat iv ist ic factor becomes En 2 = c~y 2 = m~c 4 + c2(e2A(O)~), (5 ) where we have mult ipl ied both sides by the factor c ~. The units of both sides are those of energy squared, because y, from basic HJ theory [6], has the units of l inear momentum. Equation (5) is now quantized by invoking the usual quantum hypothesis for energy En = he. (6) The charge quantization condition [6] eA (o) = ~K (7) is used for the right-hand side. I t has been shown [6] that Eq. (7) is the result of 0(3) gauge theory [14] applied to vacuum electromagnetism. The 0(3) gauge group is necessary because the conventional 0(2) gauge group is incompatible with the existence of the physical f ield B (3} orthogonal to the plane of definition of 0(2), the group of rotations in a plane. On the other hand, the three-dimensional group of rotations, 0(3), used in fundamental gauge theory (and non- Abelian electrodynamics [6]), incorporates B (3) self consis- tently, and produces Eq. (7) as a logical consequence. Using Eqs. (6) and (7) in (5) produces the de Broglie matter-wave equation ~2 m~c4 - + c2K~, (8 ) ~2 which is the Klein-Gordon equation, a quantized version of the Einstein equation for energy in special re lat iv i ty . I f Eq. (8) is to be regarded as a matter-wave equation for the electron of mass m o, then the electron must have acquired a linear momentum ~ from the photon ( i .e . , the quantized electromagnetic f ield) in a coll ision. This inference reveals the physical meaning of the vacuum charge Evans-Vigier B ()) Field 485 quantization condition, in which the classical momentum eA (~ introduced by the gauge is identified with quantized photon momentum ~K in the vacuum, and in which e is the scaling constant [14] of 0(3) gauge theory as well as the charge on the electron. It is now clear that this procedure identifies the relativist ic factor of the HJ equation as the de Broglie matter-wave equation. Obviously, both e and A () are negative [6] quantities. The rest energy of the electron, moc ~, is unaffected by this collision. (Equation (8) can also be one for the photon if m o is regarded as the photon mass rather than the electron mass. The existence of the Evans-Vigier field implies that the photon mass is finite [6,15], and this has been shown to be compatible with gauge invariance using spontaneous symmetry breaking of the vacuum.) However, in this context, m o is the electron mass, so Eq. (8) must describe the matter-wave of the electron, a plane wave in the vacuum. 2. CONSERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN A PHOTON-ELECTRON COLLISION The HJ equation (2) can be rewritten, on using the de Broglie matter-wave equation (8), as j(3) = ~K ec----~2 B (~) (mock+ ~2K2)-~ 0 `)2 (9) in which it is clear that B (3) is s t i l l an electromagnetic field property, and in which ~ is s t i l l the angular frequen- cy of both the field and the electron, but in which all other quantities are particulate in nature, properties of the electron rather than that of the field, because we have argued that Eq. (8) must be for the electron's matter-wave. However, since Eq. (8) was derived from Eq. (2), they must describe the same physical process. This can only be so i f the electron has acquired the linear momentum ~K from the photon of the quantized field. On taking the limit ~K >moC, (I0) Eq. (9) reduces to 486 Evans j(3) _. e c--~2B(3), (ii) (0 2 so the induced orbital angular momentum of the electron is directly proportional to the Evans-Vigier field. This produces [6] the characteristic and observable I{/2 depen- dence described in the introduction. The orbital angular momentum acquired by the electron is not there in the absence of an electromagnetic field, and so must have been given up to the electron by the field. In the limit (10), this process is experimentally proportional to I~/2. The limit (10) describes that in which ~K, acquired from the photon, is much larger than the electronic rest momentum moC, but the latter is never zero because rest energy never vanishes in special relativity. In Eq. (11), the ratio ~/c cannot therefore be identi- fied with the wave-vector magnitude K, because moC is not zero. This equation can be checked for self-consistency, however, i f i t is asserted mathematically that moC is identically zero, when and only when K=o/c . On using B ~) =v~ () , Eq. (11) then becomes j(3) _ eA (o_~) e (-~) . (12) K The charge quantization condition (7) Finally reduces this equation to ,/(3) = he(3) (13) in which J(~) is the angular momentum of the photon, whose magnitude is ~, the Dirac constant. The maximum orbital angular momentum that the electron can attain is ~, the angular momentum of the photon, but i f and only i f the electron rest momentum moc is ignored. In classical, non- relativistic, physics, there is no rest momentum, and so the HJ equation reduces to a description in which angular momentum is imparted elastically by the photon to the electron. Angular momentum is conserved. In the same condi- tion, linear momentum is imparted elastically, and ~K of the photon becomes ~K of the electron. If and only i f moC is zero, the latter becomes the total linear momentum of the Evans-Vigier B (3) Field 487 electron. This result is achieved through the charge quanti- zation condition (7). This identifies the classical expecta- tion value of ~K of the photon as eA () Similarly, in the expression En=~, the classical energy En is the expecta- tion value of the photonic quantum of energy ~. Because of the irremovable rest-momentummoc of the electron, the photon can never give up all its angular momentum to the electron, and the collision can never be perfectly elastic in the classical, non-relativistic, sense. 3. DISCUSSION I f the Evans-Vigier field B (3) were zero, no orbital angu.lar momentum could be transferred from the photon to the electron, a reduction to absurdity. In experimental terms, there could be no magnetization of an electron plasma by a microwave pulse, in contradiction with experience [13]. Furthermore, the electron's intrinsic (or spin) angular momentum could not interact with the electromagnetic field, and since spin angular momentum is proportional to a magnetic dipole moment [16], this is another reduction to absurdity, because a magnetic field always forms an interaction Hamilto- nian with a magnetic dipole moment. This inference is a direct result of the Dirac equation of one electron in the electromagnetic field, from which analysis it can be shown [6] that the interaction Hamiltonian is a direct product of the intrinsic electron spin with the Evans-Vigier field B (3) Such a process is also proportional to !~/2 and is observable experimentally, in principle, because it is a type of Zeeman effect [16]. It is well known that there is a close relation between the HJ and Dirac equations, the classical HJ Hamiltonian being Hera,s_ I ]I.]][- eA()c, (14) 2rn o H := p + eA. (14a) The Dirac equation is, essentially, [14] the quantum mechani- cal equation 488 Evans Wu=I("I~2-eA()c]u,2mo (15) where W= En-mo c~, and where u is a spinor component. In Eq. (15), o is a Pauli matrix, as is well known. The term (o']~2 = (p+ em) 2 + io'Cp+ eA) x (p + eA) (16) produces the intr insic spin angular momentum of the electron, which has no classical meaning, because i t is obtained from a commutator whose classical value is zero. We conclude that the Evans-Vigier f ie ld B TM is the fundamental f ie ld of magneto-optics and governs entirely the induced (angular) and permanent ( intr ins ic) angular momenta of one electron in the electromagnetic f ie ld. Therefore i t governs magnetization in al l matter by the electromagnetic f ie ld. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I t is a pleasure to acknowledge many interesting discussions with several colleagues, among whom are: the late Stanis~aw Kielich, Mikhail A. Novikov, Sisir Roy, and of course, Jean-Pierre Vigier. REFERENCES [1] W. K. H. Panofsky and M. Phillips, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, 2nd edn. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1962). [2] J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley Inter- science, New York, 1962). [3] A. O. Barut, ElectFodynamics and Classical Theory of Fields and Particles (Macmillan, New York, 1964). [4] M. W. Evans, Found. Phys. Lett. 7, 209 (1994). [5] M. W. Evans, Physica B 182, 227, 237 (1992); 183, 103 (1993); 190, 310 (1993). [6] M. W. Evans and J.-P. Vigier, The Enigmatic Photon, Volume I: The Field B TM (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1994); The Enigmatic Photon, Volume 2: Non-Abelian Electrodynamics (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1995). Evans-Vigier B (~) Field 489 [7] M. W. Evans and A. A. Hasanein, The Photomagneton in Quantum Field Theory (World Scienti f ic , Singapore, 1994). [8] M. W. Evans, and S. Kiel ich, eds., Modern Nonlinear Optics, Vols. 85(1), 85(2), and 85(3) of Advances in Chemical Physics, I. Prigogine and S. A. Rice, eds. (Wiley Interseience, New York, 1993/1994). [9] M. W. Evans, The Photon's Magnetic Field (World Scien- t i f i c , Singapore, 1992). [10] M. W. Evans, Found. Phys. Lett. 7, 67 (]994); Mod. Phys. Lett. 7, 1247 (1993). [11] M. W. Evans, Found Phys. Lett. 7, 379, 467, 577 (1994); 8, 187 (1995); Found. Phys. 24, 1519, 1671 (1994); 25, 175, 383 (1995). [12] M. W. Evans, Found. Phys. Lett. 8, 363 (1995). [13]'J. Deschamps, M. F i ta ire, and M. Lagoutte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1330 (1970); Rev. Appl. Phys. 7, 155 (1972). [14] L. H. Ryder, Quantum Field Theory, 2nd edn. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1987). [15] M. W. Evans, Found. Phys. Lett. 8, 385 (1995). [16] P. W. Atkins, Molecular Quantum Mechanics, 2nd edn. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1983).

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