the english renaissance: celebrating humanity: 1485-1625

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The English Renaissance: Celebrating Humanity: 1485-1625. Life in Elizabethan and Jacobean England. London expanded greatly as a city People moved in from rural areas and from other European countries Strict class system Busy and crowded; lots of commerce, craftsmen - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • The English Renaissance:Celebrating Humanity: 1485-1625

  • Life in Elizabethan and Jacobean EnglandLondon expanded greatly as a cityPeople moved in from rural areas and from other European countriesStrict class systemBusy and crowded; lots of commerce, craftsmenGrew into substantial port and admired European city

    London was a cesspoolThe Thames was a beautiful sewer and disease and criminals ran wild.Southwark: suburb known for its vice theaters, gaming, prostitution, etc.

  • London & The ThamesThe ground sloped toward the river so that human and animal waste would drain down to the river. It worked, mostly.Architecture: Theatres

  • Crime & PunishmentPunishment for Offenses against the State:

    - hanged until half dead, then taken down and quartered alive; members and bowels cut from their bodies, and thrown into a fire, provided near hand and within their own sight, even for the same purpose

    Other Less Serious Offenses: - murder: hanging till dead - theft: stocked, then whipped; pressed to death; branded - suicide: stake driven through their hearts

  • Im baaackThe London Bills of Mortality main source of mortality statistics of plague deaths fm. 1600s-1830s (1/3 pop. dies in London)used as way of warning about plague epidemicsmade in London after outbreak of plague in 1592 After the 1603 outbreak, they were made on a weekly basisgave everybody information as to increases or decreases in number of deaths. collected by Parish Clerks and published every week

  • How many times do we have to go through this???Four serious outbreaks of the disease occurred in 1563, 1593 , 1603 and 1608.

    Theatres (The Globe, The Swan, and The Rose) closed in the summer months.

    In 1563, Queen Elizabeth moved to Windsor Castle + had gallows erected to hang anyone arriving from London.

    In 1563, in London = over 20,000 people died

    In 1665 the Great Plague of London killed 16% of pop. (17,500 out of the population of 93,000)

    The same outbreak of 1563 claimed 80,000 people in England

    December 1592-December 1593 Stow (Elizabethan archivist) reported 10,675 plague deaths in London, a city of approximately 200,000 people


    Family lost to the plague:sisters Joan, Margaret ( just babies) and Anne (aged 7) brother Edmund (aged 27)only son Hamnet (aged 11)

    Conditions in London :no sewage system waste just dumped into the River ThamesLife expectancy = 35 yrs.

    How did the plague affect the hero of our tale?

  • Shakespeare's London: - overcrowded, rat-infested, sexually promiscuous, with raw sewage flowing in Thames, was hub for the nastiest diseases known to man. Here are the worst of the worst.Smallpox: high fever, vomiting, excessive bleeding, and pus-filled scabs that leave deep pitted scarsSyphilis: (pox) no antibiotics meant fever, body aches, blindness, full body pustules, meningitis, insanity, and leaking heart valves.Typhus: Crowded, filthy conditions,/near total lack of bathing = body lice that defecated on skin when scratched. Just one minor cut/sore for the typhus infected feces to enter bloodstream>high fever, delirium, and gangrenous sores.Malaria: (ague) fever, unbearable chills, vomiting, enlarged liver, low blood pressure, seizures, and coma And dont forget the plague! What a fun place

  • What next? FIRE? Are you KIDDING me????? How does anybody survive this place?

  • September 2, 1666: a small fire on Pudding Lane, in bakery of Thomas Farynor, baker to King Charles II

    baker and his family escaped but fear-struck maid perished in the blaze

    most London houses = wood and pitch construction, dangerously flammable, and the fire spread to hay/feed piles on the yard of the Star Inn at Fish Street Hill, took off

    strong wind sent sparks igniting Church of St. Margar + then spread to riverside warehouses + wharves filled with hemp, oil, tallow, hay, timber, coal and spirits

  • Renaissance = rebirthRebirth of: interest in learning, especially that of ancient Greece and Romecivilization in generalarts and sciencesReaction to Dark Ages of medieval EuropeMovement away from the restrictions of the ChurchRemember that creepy Pardoner?

  • Historically speakingExploration by sea: John Cabot, 1497UK represent!Religious rifts:New sense of nationalism prompted many to question ethics in and teachings of ChurchErasmus (Dutch) version of New TestamentThomas More UtopiaQuestioning of Papal authority and Scripture

  • The Monarchy: strengthening themselves and the nationHenry VII: CatholicRestorer of national economy and prestige of monarchyHenry VIII:Catholic, at firstSupports Pope against religious dissenters (Defender of the Faith)

    ButChurchs refusal to annul his marriage leads to break from CatholicismDissolves Church ownership of property, monasteriesHas Thomas More executed for refusing to renounce Catholic faithMarries 6 timesFathers Elizabeth and Mary; has a son, Edward, with his 3rd wife, Jane Seymour

  • More Tudor actionEdward, Henry VIIIs son, rules from the ages of 9-15 (whatever; thats like a 7th grader ruling your country)Parliament drastically changes religious practicesEnglish replaces LatinBook of Common Prayer required in public worshipEngland is on its way to becoming a Protestant nation untilWere back, baby!Mary I takes throneRestores Roman practices to Church of EnglandRestores authority of Pope over English ChurchKnown as Bloody Mary for ordering execution of about 300 ProtestantsAnd I could use a drink. Make it ahmmMary rules for 5 years, and then

  • Cate Blanchett Elizabeth I takes the throne!Hey, I wonder if thats where they got the name for the Elizabethan periodClassically educated; patron of the artsReinstated monarchs rule over Church of England, ending religious turmoilEstablished climate of religious compromiseKnown as one of the best rulers in English historySpoiler alert! Dies in 1603I rule! (literally and figuratively)The Mary Stuart problem:Catholics considered Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland, rightful heir to throne of England (marriage annulment issues)Imprisoned by cousin, Elizabeth, for 18 yearsHatched numerous Catholic plots against herElizabeth let her live, punished CatholicsParliament insisted on beheading Mary in 1587Elizabeth arrgh

  • Life after Elizabeththe StuartsHey, I wonder if thats where they got the name for JamestownJames I (well, James VI of Scotland, but James I of England)Son of Mary StuartNamed by Elizabeth as her successorProtestantJacobean era (from Latin for James)Expanded Englands position as world power (colony in VA)Believed in divine right of monarchsPower struggles with ParliamentPersecuted Puritans (who migrated to Plymouth Colony)Smell you later, Jimmy!I may have divine right, but this outfit is just wrong

  • Sonnet cycle: A series of sonnets, usually fit loosely together to form a storyBig men on campus: Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, ShakespeareTwo major rhyme schemes: Petrarchan/Italian and Shakespearean Shakespearean rhyme scheme: abab, cdcd, efef, ggFinally, the good stuffLyric over narrative poetryPsst! Lyric poem: a short poem with one speaker (not necessarily the poet) who expresses thought and feeling.Sonnets! Yeah!Psst! Sonnet: 14 lines, iambic pentameter, various rhyme schemes. Word!Many sonnets consist of 8 lines setting up one idea, 4 lines responding to that idea, and a concluding couplet at the end. Rock and roll!Renaissance Poetry

  • Pastoral poetryIdealized rustic simplicity of rural lifeHeavy hitters: Christopher Marlowe and Sir Walter RaleighHey, I wonder if thats where they got the name for Raleigh, NCIm a poet, soldier, explorer, historian and member of the Royal Court. I am The Man - the true Renaissance man!

  • Turned away from religious focus and toward classical Greek and Roman tragedies and dramasChristopher Marlowe: First major dramatist (1580s)Shakespeare (1564-1616)People say that if Id lived past 30 I might have eclipsed Shakespeare as Englands greatest playwright! Dang!Started as actorFamous playwright by 1592 37 Plays: most can be categorized as tragedy, comedy, or historyDeep understanding of what it means to be human helps maintain popularity

    And I might have gotten credit for stuff you wrote! Too bad, suckah! Renaissance Drama

  • Not as popular as poetryNames to drop:Sidney, Raleigh and Thomas NasheSir Francis Bacon: essays, science, philosophyWhich is the more satisfying bacon: pioneering English author or tasty breakfast meat?King James Bible Translated Latin Bible into EnglishHuge achievementprobably most important in English Renaissance54 scholars worked 7 years!Influential, used to this dayRenaissance Prose

  • 1485: Thomas More publishes Utopia

    1534: Church of England established

    1535: Thomas More executed

    1549: The Book of Common Prayer issued

    1558: Elizabeth I becomes Queen

    1563: More plague: 20,000 Londoners die

    1564: Shakespeare is born!Important Dates

  • 1594: Shakespeare writes Romeo and Juliet

    1599: The Globe Theater opens

    1603: Queen Elizabeth I dies; James I becomes King of England.

    1606: Guy Fawkes executed for Gunpowder Plot

    1607: Royal Colony of Jamestown established

    1611: King James Bible published1616: Shakespeare dies

    1620: Pilgrims land on Plymouth Rock

    1625: King James I dies. Important Dates (Cont.)