The English Reformation. Remember Henry VII? His two sons… Arthur and Henry
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The English Reformation
Remember Henry VII?His two sons Arthur and Henry
The Next Tudor king?Arthur groomed to be king; even named after Arthurian legendTwo year old Arthur bethrothed to Catherine of Aragon; alliance and huge dowryCatherine came to England, married in 1501Catherines miseryFifteen year old Arthur died of consumption, or the sweating sickness
NOT THE NEXT TUDOR KING!!!
The Next Tudor King: Henry VIIITook the throne in 1509 (18 yrs. old) Its good to be kingtamed nobles, full treasury, good ministersTransformed navy; broadside firing canons on ships; coastal defensesHenry VIII married Catherine of Aragon in 1509 (yes, previously his sister-in-law)England went to war against France (1512-1514) because Pope Julius II was being threatened by French King Louis XII (think back to the end of Italian Renaissance flow chart)
Francis I (Fr)b. 1494r. 1515-1547Emperor Charles V (HRE)b. 1500r. 1519-1556Henry VIII (Eng)b. 1491r. 1509-1547
Field of Cloth of Gold 1520: celebration between Henry VIII and Francis I to solidify their new alliance
Defender of the Faith1521: Henry wrote Declaration of the Seven Sacraments Against Martin Luther Pope Leo bestowed Henry with the title Defender of the Faith Early sign of Henrys religious conservatism
translated the New Testament into English1525 it was mass printed and smuggled into Englandprofoundly influenced the written English languagehunted, incarcerated, then burned at the stake for heresy.
Henrys Wife and AffairCatherine of AragonCoronated Queen in June 1509 after marriage to Henry VIIIStillborn daughter 1510Prince Henry born 1511died 52 days later1516, daughter Mary bornsurvives (will become Queen Mary I, Tudor, Bloody Mary)Becoming increasingly religiousNO MALE HEIR!!!!
Anne BoleynLove letters from HenryQueen or nothingInfluenced by ProtestantismLord Chancellor Wolsey is not able to procure an annulment from the pope and was dismissed in 1529New Minister, Thomas Cromwell set out to find a way to deal with the problemAnne gave in to Henry, pregnant by late 1532Secretly married to Henry 1533By summer of 1533 royal plans being made for the birth of Henrys long awaited heir
Elizabeth I, daughter of Anne Boleyn
The Reformation Parliament 1529-1536Parliament passed a series of Acts to officially break from Roman Papacy and make Henry VIII the head of the church of England1532: Act of Annates: prevented the payment of money to the Pope1533: Act of Restraint of Appeals: forbid appeals from being taken to Rome, preventing Catherine from appealing her divorce to the Pope1534: Act of Supremacy: declared Henry, not the Pope, head of the Church of EnglandDissolution of the Monasteries
DESPITE BREAKING FROM ROME, THE ENGLISH CHURCH IS STILL CATHOLIC IN DOCTRINEMaintained church structure, but replaced pope with kingSix Articles of 1539 Latin MassReaffirmed clerical celibacyReaffirmed need for confessionReaffirmed transubstantiation
Wives of Henry VIII
1. Catherine of Aragonm. 1509-1533First married ArthurHad a daughter MaryHenry cheated on her w/ Bessie BlountDivorced
2. Anne Boleynm. 1533-1536Six fingers and a goiter?Not popular with peopleSecretly married 1533 Had a daughter, ElizabethExecuted for adultery, incest and treason, Elizabeth declared illigitimate
3. Jane Seymourm. 1536-1537Had a son, Edward (King Edward VI)Died in 1537 after giving birth
4. Anne of ClevesM. 1540 (Jan-July)Married to form an allianceMarried sight unseenReally not too pretty: Flander MareMarriage never consumated, annulled
5. Catherine Howardm. 1540-1542Henry fat and smelly at this point (49 yrs old)Who can blame her?Beheaded for adultery in 1542
6. Catherine Parrm. 1543-1547Survived!Mother figure for Elizabeth and EdwardProtestant influence
Alls well that ends well.?Henry died in 1547 (an obese, smelly, festering, gangrenous man)The people of England were increasingly supportive of the continental reformersRemember. The monarch is now the head of the Church. The next monarch?
The Consolidation of the English ReformationHenrys three heirs Edward, Mary, Elizabeth
Edward VI takes the throne at age 10Heavily influenced by powerful advisor, John Dudley , Duke of NorthumberlandCorresponded directly with John CalvinClerical marriage and communion with cup were sanctionedImposed Cranmers Book of Common Prayer on all church servicesImages and altars removed from churchesInflux of Protestantsr.1547-1553
The Second Act of Uniformity 1552Cranmers confession of faith adopted (moderate Protestant doctrine)Required church attendanceJustification by faith, supremacy of Holy ScriptureDenied transubstantiationRecognized two sacraments
The next English monarch?Lady Jane GreyThe Nine Day QueenJohn Dudley, Duke of NorthumberlandWhy not a Tudor?
The Next Tudor monarch....Queen Mary I (Mary Tudor)r. 1553-1558Restored Catholic doctrineMarried Philip II of SpainCranmer, Dudley and many other Protestants burned at the stakeBloody MaryDid not produce an heir
Finally A religious settlement will come about thanks to Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603) established the Anglican ChurchModerate Protestantism, Protestant doctrine with Catholic ritual