The Engineering Disciplines. The number of engineering disciplines is not static. Many disciplines spawn additional sub-disciplines. Lets focus on the.

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  • Slide 1
  • The Engineering Disciplines
  • Slide 2
  • The number of engineering disciplines is not static. Many disciplines spawn additional sub-disciplines. Lets focus on the major disciplines!
  • Slide 3
  • Engineering Disciplines Aerospace Agricultural Architectural Biomedical Biological Chemical Civil Computer Electrical Environmental Industrial Manufacturing Materials Mechanical Nuclear Petroleum Software
  • Slide 4
  • Aerospace Engineering Aerospace engineers design and develop technology for commercial aviation, the national defense, and space exploration. In 1990, aerospace engineers helped launch the Hubble Space Telescope, an orbiting instrument that allows us to see 10 times farther than we have ever seen before. ASEE
  • Slide 5
  • They design, develop, and test aircraft, spacecraft, satellites, and missiles and supervise the manufacturing of these products. Aerospace engineers who work with aircraft are considered aeronautical engineers, and those working specifically with spacecraft are considered astronautical engineers.
  • Slide 6
  • Repairing cracked shuttle tiles. Boeing Jets working on better Fuel efficiency and longer range.
  • Slide 7
  • Aerospace Engineering Employers Boeing NASA Lockheed Martin Space Systems / Loral Lockheed Martin F16 Falcon Flying over Iraq Boeing Fighter Jet from 1932
  • Slide 8
  • Agricultural Engineering Agricultural engineers design farm and food processing equipment; construct crop storage and livestock buildings; and develop systems for drainage, irrigation, and waste disposal. Sometimes agricultural engineers work in labs like EPCOT's Land Pavilion, where they experiment with promising indoor farming techniques such as hydroponicsthe science of growing plants in fluids without dirt. ASEE
  • Slide 9
  • harvesters, transporters Precision agriculture utilizing GPS, remote sensing and computerized field equipment. control of vibration, noise, air quality, heating, cooling within machinery. Environmental controllers for poultry, swine, beef, aquaculture, plants
  • Slide 10
  • Agricultural Engineering Employers Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) Cargill DuPont US Department of Agriculture
  • Slide 11
  • Architectural Engineering Working alongside architects, architectural engineers focus on the safety, cost, and construction methods of designing a building. For example, as the US population grows in the Southwest, more and more architectural engineers are investigating new ways to build on land where there is only sand and sagebrush. Working alongside architects, architectural engineers focus on the safety, cost, and construction methods of designing a building. For example, as the US population grows in the Southwest, more and more architectural engineers are investigating new ways to build on land where there is only sand and sagebrush. ASEE (This is very related to Structural & Civil Engineering)
  • Slide 12
  • Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineers develop devices and procedures that solve medical and health-related problems. Biomedical Engineers work with medical professionals to develop medical instruments, monitoring equipment, artificial organs, and prosthetic devices.
  • Slide 13
  • Computers for Blood analysis Laser Systems for Corrective eye surgery. Ultrasound Imaging Equipment Implantable Hip Joints
  • Slide 14
  • Biological Engineering Bioengineering combines biology and engineering. Biological Engineers understand how biological systems operate and develop effective biology- based technologies for applications across a wide spectrum of societal needs including breakthroughs in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, in design of novel materials, devices, and processes, and in enhancing environmental health.
  • Slide 15
  • Biological and Agricultural Engineering Programs at UC Davis Aquaculture Engineering Ecological Systems Engineering Energy Systems Engineering Environmental Engineering Food Engineering Forest and Fiber Engineering Health and Safety Engineering Machine Systems Engineering Postharvest Engineering Sensor and Control Engineering Soil and Water Engineering Aquaculture Engineering Ecological Systems Engineering Energy Systems Engineering Environmental Engineering Food Engineering Forest and Fiber Engineering Health and Safety Engineering Machine Systems Engineering Postharvest Engineering Sensor and Control Engineering Soil and Water EngineeringAquaculture Engineering Ecological Systems Engineering Energy Systems Engineering Environmental Engineering Food Engineering Forest and Fiber Engineering Health and Safety Engineering Machine Systems Engineering Postharvest Engineering Sensor and Control Engineering Soil and Water EngineeringAquaculture Engineering Ecological Systems Engineering Energy Systems Engineering Environmental Engineering Food Engineering Forest and Fiber Engineering Health and Safety Engineering Machine Systems Engineering Postharvest Engineering Sensor and Control Engineering Soil and Water Engineering
  • Slide 16
  • In the early 1950s California's tomato industry was threatened because of the lack of laborers to harvest the crops. In response, the UC Davis agricultural engineering department developed the mechanical tomato harvester. Unfortunately, this machine crushed the tomatoes. The vegetable crops department came to the rescue by breeding a firmer-skinned tomato - also known as the square tomato Several genetically engineered varieties of tomatoes have been developed in the US and approved for commercialization, For a variety of reasons these GE tomatoes are no longer marketed agricultural engineering agricultural engineering
  • Slide 17
  • Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineers often take chemical reactions and scale them up to a large manufacturing process. They focus on the production of products formed through a chemical reaction. This is sometimes called Process Engineering. Chemical Engineers often take chemical reactions and scale them up to a large manufacturing process. They focus on the production of products formed through a chemical reaction. This is sometimes called Process Engineering. Chemical engineering involves the processing and treating of liquids and gases. For example, some chemical engineers are studying ways to desalinate seawaterstripping it of salt to make the water safe to drink. Chemical engineering involves the processing and treating of liquids and gases. For example, some chemical engineers are studying ways to desalinate seawaterstripping it of salt to make the water safe to drink. Many chemical engineers work with petroleum and plastics. Many chemical engineers work with petroleum and plastics. The term "environmental engineering" also applies to certain areas of chemical engineering, such as pollution control. The term "environmental engineering" also applies to certain areas of chemical engineering, such as pollution control.
  • Slide 18
  • Chemical Engineers are employed to do: Food Processing Food Processing Beverage making and bottling Beverage making and bottling Environmental Analysis Environmental Analysis Making of Cosmetics, Perfumes, and Flavorings Making of Cosmetics, Perfumes, and Flavorings Pharmaceutical production Pharmaceutical production Petroleum and Plastics processing Petroleum and Plastics processing
  • Slide 19
  • Kelco, San Diego Manufacturer of Biopolymers from Sea Kelp Petroleum Extraction and Processing Pollution Control
  • Slide 20
  • Chemical Engr Employers Dow Chemical DuPont Proctor and Gamble Monsanto Johnson & Johnson Merck General Mills
  • Slide 21
  • Civil Engineering One of the largest branches of engineering, civil engineering is a field that deals with buildings, bridges, dams, roads, and other public works structures. Civil engineers plan, design, and supervise the construction of facilities such as high-rise buildings, airports, water treatment centers, and sanitation plants.
  • Slide 22
  • Flood waters compromise levee Near New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina. Historic Preservation Grand Central Terminal New York City Rebuilding Oklahoma City after the bombings. Buildings are blast resistant and employ sustainable Construction. Oklahoma City Federal Bldg.
  • Slide 23
  • William J. Clinton Presidential Center Little Rock, AK Architecture can be both industrial as well as inviting to people. Architecture can effect peoples moods, productivity, and energy.
  • Slide 24
  • A translucent concrete material contains glass optical fibers that transmit light through the entire length of the block. It can bring sunlight through a wall. New Compositions make Concrete more versatile. SACRED SURFACES. The modern church Dives in Misericordia located in Rome, is made from a self- cleaning concrete that breaks down atmospheric pollutants that would otherwise darken the surface over time.
  • Slide 25
  • Ductal an ultra high performance concrete developed by Lafarge. The high strength fibers make the material self reinforcing. The Material can be used to make very thin structures with out the need for conventional steel reinforcement. The concrete will bend like metal before breaking.
  • Slide 26
  • Japan Juscelino Kubitschek Bridge Brazilian Wave Arch Tacoma Narrows Bridge, 1940 Wind created resonant vibrations. Now computer modeling and wind tunnels are used to test the rigidity of the road decks.
  • Slide 27
  • Computer & Software Engineering Computer engineers deal with all aspects of computer systems including design, construction, and operation. Some computer engineers specialize in areas like digital systems, operating systems, computer networks, and software.
  • Slide 28
  • Computer Engineering Hardware and Chip Design Development of Software Applications Integrating components together, i.e. device driver software Project Management teams located in multiple places Chip Fabrication Test and Quality Assurance (QA)
  • Slide 29
  • Computer Engineer Employers Cisco Sun Intel Microsoft Oracle IBM Apple Google Yahoo Wireless service Providers cell phone services Manufacturers of hand-held devices. GIS/GPS businesses. eBay and Amazon Self employed
  • Slide 30
  • Open Source software Invites lots of developers to create new applications Using Languages such as JAVA. Global Positioning Unit
  • Slide 31
  • Electrical Engineering The discipline that employs the largest number of engineers, covers everything related to electrical devices, systems, and the use of electricity. Electrical engineers work on power plants, computers, and other electrical devices.
  • Slide 32
  • Electrical Engineering (non- computer) Control systems in car Satellites Communications Cell phones Power Plants Circuit boards Appliances TVs, DVDs, Medical Instruments Recording Equipment Synthesizers Amplification equipment Lighting Hardware for networking Firmware (low level coding) Custom Chips Aviation Controls Electronic monitoring and tagging (dog tags)
  • Slide 33
  • Radomes Antenna protection These are cell phone towers?
  • Slide 34
  • Environmental Engineering Environmental engineers assist with the development of water distribution systems, recycling methods, sewage treatment plants, and other pollution prevention and control systems in the water, air, and land. Environmental engineers constantly seek new ways to reduce air pollution and pesticides.
  • Slide 35
  • Environmental Engineers work on: Acid Rain and how to avoid it Clean Energy Energy Star Program Public policy compliance title 45 Indoor air quality Site Clean up Recycling and waste minimization. EPA Projects (Environmental Protection Agency) EPA employs over 9000 engineers.
  • Slide 36
  • Industrial Engineering Industrial engineers organize the people, information, energy, materials, and machines involved in the production process. They are concerned with plant design and management, quality control, and the human factors of engineering.
  • Slide 37
  • Industrial Engineering specialties: management engineer - Combining knowledge of the business and the facilities. ergonomist modify a process to reduce worker injury. operations analyst - devising systems to increase effectiveness of an operation. Quality engineer devise systems to service customers efficiently.
  • Slide 38
  • Industrial Engineers might do: Designing the admissions procedure at a hospital Designing the admissions procedure at a hospital Converting a major production line to JIT Representing a company in the design and construction of a new manufacturing plant Performing motion and time studies Developing prototype units for the cellular phone car adapter market Simulation modeling Developing a hardware protection program for spacecraft Developing a supplier quality program Implementing lean manufacturing concepts Developing and launching a complete material handling system for a new automobile Developing the conceptual layout of a dockyard and ship repair maintenance facility Working on a design project to make a medical device to treat sleep apnea Representing manufacturing and purchasing issues on a design team
  • Slide 39
  • Manufacturing Engineering Manufacturing engineers design tools and equipment and work with all aspects of manufacturingfrom production control and materials handling to mechanization and automation.
  • Slide 40
  • Materials Engineering Metallurgical and materials engineers extract, process, refine, combine, and manufacture natural substances to create new materials that meet specifications that could not be met with raw materials. Example: Materials that are: stronger, resist corrosion, lighter, inert, elastic, sticky, insulate, invisible, etc. Metallurgical engineers work with metal only. Teams of metallurgy and materials engineers created the US Air Force's "stealth" technology that makes a fighter plane's surface nearly invisible to radar.
  • Slide 41
  • Nylon - 1931 Teflon-1938 Neoprene- 1931 Pyrex - 1924 Liquid Crystal Displays 1968 Transistors replace Vacuum tubes Biomimicry Lead to the Invention of Velcro - 1948 Ultrasuede and Gortex Glass fibers
  • Slide 42
  • Nanotechnolgy includes the many techniques used to create structures at a size scale below 100 nm Biomimicry is the application of methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology
  • Slide 43
  • Rain forests worldwide cover approximately 6% of Earth's surface, and yet scientists believe they contain 50% of the world's plant and animal speciesan impressive ratio. In common parlance, tropical rain forests are not only the planet's land-based centers of biodiversitywhere most species livethey also contribute to the maintenance of the worlds climate by regulating rainfall and storing enormous amounts of carbon. Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation The Amazon Rainforest natures laboratory for new Discoveries.
  • Slide 44
  • Mechanical Engineering Mechanical engineers use mechanics and energy principles to design machines such as tools, engines. Machines, motors, and other devices. Many mechanical engineers work in the areas of air- conditioning and refrigeration, automotives, manufacturing, welding, robotics, and mechatronics. They study materials, heat and energy transfer, manufacturing technologies
  • Slide 45
  • A mechanical engineer designs anything that uses mechanical motion Computer Modeling Prototyping Robotics Underwater Vehicle Consumer & Baby products Food Handling
  • Slide 46
  • What is Mechatronics? The Fusion of Mechanical Engineering, electronics, and computing. Usually requires cross-disciplinary training. Looks like robotics Automate and Improve production The elements of Mechatronics systems include sensors, actuators, microcontrollers (or microprocessors) and real-time control software. The actuators are mainly high precision electric motors and solenoids. Any of a large number of sensor types are used, including light, acceleration, weight, color, temperature and image.
  • Slide 47
  • Stepper Motor Stair climbing robot
  • Slide 48
  • Nuclear Engineering Nuclear engineers design, develop, and control plants that use nuclear energy for fuel and medical purposes. Some nuclear engineers are busy working on a nuclear- powered spacecraft that will travel to Mars.
  • Slide 49
  • Examples of Nuclear Engineering Food irradiation has been systematically evaluated by the Food and Agriculture Organization which concluded that treating raw meat and poultry with irradiation eliminates disease-causing bacteria commonly found such as E. coli and Salmonella and poses no toxicological hazards at typically used doses. Domestic sources of radioisotopes are needed to adequately sustain the growing needs of our medical and healthcare communities.
  • Slide 50
  • Problems inherent with fossil fuels are avoided with energy production using hydrogen. Per unit of fuel, hydrogen fuel cells in vehicles are about twice as efficient as combustion energies. Unlike conventional engines, fuel cells emit only water vapor and heat. Only nuclear energy can produce hydrogen on large enough scales to meet future demand while avoiding the release of greenhouse gases. These battery- like devices inside hydrogen vehicles convert hydrogen and oxygen into water, in the process producing electricity and heat that can power a motor.

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