The end of the car city - A convenient truth

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  • THE END OF THE CAR CITY A convenient truth Alexander Sthle, PHD & CEO URBAN RESEARCH & DESIGNSPACESCAPE
  • Why cities?
  • Proximity creates livability
  • Proximity creates innovation
  • Proximity creates social wellfare
  • Vad gr en attraktiv plats? Fungerar planen som det var tnkt? Vad skapar nrhet och flden? SOFO Proximity creates value
  • Housing value is 90% walkability in Stockholm Appartment prices in Stockholm regionUrban qualities
  • Walkability command a premium of $4-34,000 CEO for Cities (2009) Walkable urbanDrivable suburban
  • SHOPS DENSITYDENSITY SHOPS STOCKHOLM MALMREBRO RESTAURANTS DENSITY Cities are proximity, density, closeness Edward Glaeser
  • Density decreases car use Density Travel Dunphy RT and Fisher K (1996)
  • Average commute in Hong Kong is 11 min
  • Individuals living near transit had a significantly higher level of trust and reciprocity and connections with neighbors. Patterns of social capital associated with transit oriented development, Journal of Transport Geography, 2014
  • Denser areas have greater economic mobility. (Measuring sprawl, SGA, 2014)
  • The compact walkable city enhance livelihoods for the poor through affordable mobility. It lower social segregation through proximity of affordable housing to places of work. Joan Clos, UN Habitat
  • An advanced city is not where the poor drive cars, but where the rich take public transport Enrique Penalosa
  • Car accessiblity do not affect appartment prices or office rents in Stockholm Public transport accessibility Officerent
  • Failing office areas without transit and walkability Infra City, Upplands Vsby
  • Inside Infra City, Upplands Vsby Inside failing office areas
  • "People in denser areas are more physically active." (Neighborhood environment and physical activity, Eriksson, 2013)
  • "People in denser areas have longer life expectancies." (Measuring sprawl, SGA, 2014)
  • 5% drive to shop downtown in New York and in Stockholm (PPS 2010, Spacescape 2012)
  • "Pedestrians spend 65% more than drivers" Transport for London (2014)
  • 1/3 of Americas malls are dead or dying deadmalls.com
  • Wallmart and IKEA goes urban
  • Gallerian shopping mall, Stockholm
  • Photoshop Gallerian shopping mall, Stockholm
  • Why not car cities?
  • People in cars can
  • People in cars cant interact
  • When in my car I get a different set of values Louis CK
  • New study on road rage (Gatersleben, Murtagh, White 2013): Car use has negative effects on urban communities by affecting social perceptions. More car use through a relatively poor area is associated with less positive views of that area. More walking through a relatively poor area is related to more positive views of the area. Attitudes towards young people are more negative when they are seen from a car. Attitudes towards young people are most positive when seen from a pedestrian perspective. Attitudes to people more negative when seen from a car
  • Car traffic segregate neighborhoods Livable streets, Donald Appleyard (1981)
  • Car traffic is the most common complaint Vstra Ursvik, Sundbyberg Rinkeby Ursvik
  • Car dependency is unequal - Women and poor drive less (A car costs approx. $900 a month)
  • Cars take up space
  • Cars take up too much space
  • Parking is the most incorrectly valued urban asset... A $310 bn parking subsidy, 5X the education budget. (Public Parking Fees and Fines, Public Works Management & Policy, 2014)
  • Car infrastructure is heavily subsidized
  • Sprawl consumes land In the last decade, an area larger than the entire state of Maryland -- more than 33,000 square km of farmland, woodlands and other natural habitat beyond the edges of the nation's cities (2014)
  • Ecosystems are destroyed and fragmented
  • Green cars?
  • Traffic make 20-25% of all CO2 Peak oil?
  • The ecological footprint of a car is X800
  • Acid rain kills nature and pollutes water
  • Long live the pedestrians says who?
  • Car speed means death
  • Streets where playgrounds before the car Allmnna vgen, Gteborg 1910
  • Bad density means more sprawl - forces families to move to the suburbs
  • Cars kill 1,2 Mn and injure 39 Mn every year
  • Car driving promotes obesity and early death
  • 2,4 Mn people dies from smog every year
  • Car driving is like drug addiction (The compulsive habit of cars, Trends in cognitive science, 2014)
  • Choice blindness
  • Car city
  • Car city Walk city
  • The end of the suburbs A war on the dream?
  • Who says walk cities?
  • We should embrace policies that promote the compact city Joan Clos, UN Habitat
  • City transport is about moving people, not vehicles Rachel Kyte, World Bank
  • High quality sidewalks are the most basic element of a democratic city. Enrique Pealosa, ITDP
  • Pedestrians and cyclists and bus riders are more important than car riders. Michael Bloomberg, NYC
  • New American policies for walk cities New York Chicago
  • New Swedish policies for walk cities
  • Walk cities reclaimed
  • Cities are being reclaimed and repaired
  • Squares are reclaimed Time square, NY
  • Freeways are reclaimed CicLAvia, Los Angeles
  • This used to be as freeway Hayes Valley San Francisco
  • Parks are reclaimed Champs Elyses, Paris
  • Parking spaces are reclaimed
  • Gardens are reclaimed
  • Playgrounds are reclaimed
  • Downtowns are reclaimed Detroit
  • Small towns too FLEN 2013
  • Small towns too FLEN 2015
  • Small towns too FLEN 2020
  • URBAN RESEARCH & DESIGNSPACESCAPE Alexander Sthle PhD & CEO Spacescape alexander.stahle@spacescape.se www.spacescape.se

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