the effects of cationization on dyeing properties of natural pigment for dyeing fabric. natural dyes

The Effects of Cationization on Dyeing Properties of natural pigment for dyeing fabric. Natural dyes
The Effects of Cationization on Dyeing Properties of natural pigment for dyeing fabric. Natural dyes
The Effects of Cationization on Dyeing Properties of natural pigment for dyeing fabric. Natural dyes
The Effects of Cationization on Dyeing Properties of natural pigment for dyeing fabric. Natural dyes
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  • Abstract—A cationizing agent was used for increasing the

    color yield, in terms of the Kubelka–Munk values (color

    strength, K/S). Cotton fabrics were dyed using the extract of

    waste marigold and rose. This work was to study the optimum

    of time, temperature and concentration in cationizing process

    on dyed cotton. The K/S and color values (L*, a*, b*) were

    measured to discover the suitable condition from color value

    and color strength estimation, cotton fabric cationized with 10

    g/L of cationizing-agent concentration for 30 minutes at the

    50°C showed the highest K/S. In case of roses, the best condition

    is treated with cationizing-agent concentration of 15 g/L for 15

    minutes at 50°C. The obtainable results revealed that the color

    strength of cationized cotton fabrics were increased when

    compared to K/S of untreated cotton up to 34.26% and 331.91%

    for marigold and rose dyes, respectively, and the obtainable

    color of cationized cotton fabrics were brighter as compared to

    the untreated cotton.

    Index Terms—Cationization, cotton dyeing, marigold dye,

    rose dye.

    I. INTRODUCTION

    Cotton fabric is natural cellulose fiber, which produces

    slightly negative charge as being contacted with water owing

    to the ionization of the hydroxyl group [1], [2]. Because of its

    electrolyte, anionic dyes are suitable for intensified dye

    uptake, whereas anionic dyes leads to the waste water and

    environmental problems [3]. Natural dyes are more

    interesting due to sustainability, bio-degradability [4] and

    low toxicity [5]. In this study, marigold and rose were extract

    for dyeing cotton fabric. Because large amounts of red rose

    and marigold are major of flowers offered in Thai Temples,

    the offered flowers increasingly create the huge amount of

    biological waste. However, these wastes can produce the

    natural pigment for dyeing fabric.

    Natural dyes are one of the alternatives friendlier for the

    environment, but the natural dyes are low absorbed on cotton

    [6]. The cationizing agent is used to modify the cationization

    process to improve dye ability of cotton-dyeing process,

    color yields and fastness properties compared to the

    conventional dye process [2], [7].

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of

    cationizing agent on the dyeing properties of cotton for

    marigold and rose extracts. The influences on color values

    and intensity of cationizing-agent concentration, time and

    Manuscript received February 22, 2019; revised April 22, 2019.

    M. Nutchawanit and C. Satirapipathkul are with Chulalongkorn

    University, Thailand (e-mail: matrikan.n@gmail.com,

    chutimon.s@chula.ac.th).

    Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit is with Rajamangala University of

    Technology Phra Nakhon, Thailand (e-mail: Rattanaphol.m@rmutp.ac.th).

    temperature compared to the untreated cotton were studied.

    The color values and color strength were determined by

    spectrophotometer.

    II. MATERIALS AND METHOD

    A. Materials

    Marigolds and roses were waste flowers from Trinity and

    Ganesha offered at Central World Shopping Plaza, Bangkok.

    The bleached cotton fabric was received from Thai Phuan

    community, Ban Mi district, Lopburi, Thailand. The soaping

    agent was supplied by Boonthawee Chemephan Co, Ltd.

    (Thailand) and the cationizing agent used in this experiment

    was STARCAT PD (Polyethylene polyamine) from Star

    Tech Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd., Bangkok, Thailand.

    B. Cationization of Cotton Fabric

    The bleached cotton was treated by being soak in

    cationizing-agent solution with the variation of cationization

    concentrations, time and temperatures at a fabric-to-liquor

    ratio of 1:50 using STARCAT PD to insert cationic groups

    on cotton surface. The effects of time, temperature and

    concentration of cationizing agent on color strength (K/S)

    and color values (L*, a*, b*) were studied, then the dyed

    cationized cotton with the optimum condition of time,

    temperature and concentration were compared with the

    cation-untreated, dyed cotton.

    1) The Effects of concentration

    The bleached cotton fabrics were treated in the different

    cationizing-agent concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/L (in

    distilled water) at 30°C for 60 minutes, then dried in oven at

    60°C for 10 minutes. After that, the cationized cotton was

    dyed and measured the color value and color strength.

    2) The effects of time

    The bleached cotton fabrics were treated in various time of

    15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 minutes at the 30°C by the

    concentration with the maximum K/S value, then dried in

    oven at 60°C for 10 minutes. After that, the cationized cotton

    was dyed and measured the color value and color strength.

    3) The effects of temperature

    The bleached cotton fabrics were treated with the selected

    concentration and time presenting the maximum K/S value at

    various temperatures of 30, 50, 70 and 90°C by heating the

    solution in water bath, then dried in oven at 60°C for 10

    minutes. After that, the cationized cotton were dyed and

    measured the color value and color strength.

    C. Dye Extraction

    1) Marigold-dye extraction

    In this experiment, the flower petals were dried in hot-air

    Matrikan Nutchawanit, Chutimon Satirapipathkul, and Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit

    The Effects of Cationization on Dyeing Properties of

    Cotton Fabric Dyed with Marigold and Rose

    International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications, Vol. 10, No. 2, April 2019

    60doi: 10.18178/ijcea.2019.10.2.741

  • oven at 45-60°C for 12 hours before being ground. The

    ground dried marigold petals were extracted by 95% ethanol

    at 60°C by heating the solution in water bath with the

    ground-dried-petal-to-liquor ratio of 1:5. The mixture was

    left on the magnetic-bar stirrer for 2 hours then filtered by

    no.1 Whatman filter paper to remove the residue and dried at

    60°C.

    2) Rose-dye Extraction

    In this experiment, the flower petals were dried in hot-air

    oven at 45-60°C for 12 hours before being ground. The

    ground dried rose petal was extracted by 50% ethanol at

    room temperature with the ground-dried-petal-to-liquor ratio

    of 1:10. The mixture was left on the magnetic-bar stirrer for

    90 minutes then filtered by no.1 Whatman filter paper to

    remove the residue and dried at 60°C.

    D. Dyeing Process

    Marigold and rose extracts were dissolved in distilled

    water with the dye concentration of 40 g/L. The dye

    concentrations were determined using a UV-Visible

    Spectrophotometer based on absorbance at the maximum

    wavelength, λmax (λmax of 360 nm for marigold dye and λmax of

    288.5 nm for rose dye). The marigold extract dyed the

    cationized cotton and the untreated cotton fabric by soaking

    them at 50°C for 60 min in water bath. The rose extract dyed

    the cationized cotton and the untreated cotton fabric by

    soaking them at the temperature 30°C for 60 min. The

    fabric-to-liquor ratio of 1:50 was used in both marigold and

    rose dyes. After dyeing process was done, the dyed samples

    were rinsed and soaked with non-ionic soaping agent (2 g/L

    in water) at the fabric-to-liquor ratio of 1:50, 80°C for 15

    minutes. The dyed samples were rinsed with cold water, dried

    at room temperature and then measured the K/S and the color

    values by spectrophotometer (Macbeth Color Eye 7000).

    E. Color Measurement

    The dyed cotton was determined its color value (L*, a*, b*)

    and color strength (K/S) by spectrophotometer following the

    standard procedure. L* value is the measure of lightness (L*=

    0 is the darkest black, and L* = 100 is the brightest white), a*

    and b* are defined the green-red and blue-yellow color

    components where a* extends from green (negative sign) to

    red (positive sign) while b* from blue (negative sign) to

    yellow (positive sign). The color strength (K/S) is

    automatically analyzed by Kubelka–Munk equation [4] (1).

    K/S = (1-R)2 /2R (1)

    where K is the light absorption coefficient, S is scattering

    coefficient and R is reflectance value at the maximum

    wavelength of the dyed sample

    III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    A. The Effects of Concentration for Cationization

    The effects of concentration of catiornizing agent to K/S

    values of cotton fabric dyed by rose and marigold extracts

    were shown in Fig. 1. The K/S values of the cationized cotton

    fabric with the marigold dye increased as the concentrations

    of cationization increased from 0-10 g/L which showed that

    the highest K/S value (20.38) was higher than the K/S of the

    untreated cotton (16.75) up to 17.81%. In case of rose dye,

    the K/S values of the cationized cotton fabric increased as the

    concentrations of cationization increased from 0-15 g/L

    which displayed that the hig

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