the authenticity of early buddhist texts
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DESCRIPTIONThe Authenticity of Early Buddhist TextsAuthor: Ajahn Sujato
The Authenticity of the Early Buddhist Texts
Bhikkhu Sujato & Bhikkhu Brahmali
0.1 Definitions 9
0.2 Thesis 10
0.3 Timeline 10
History & eorphy
1.1 Political geography 13
1.1.1 Megasthenes 13
1.1.2 The expansion of the known world 15
1.1.3 Greek connections 17
1.1.4 The 16 nations become part of the Mgadhan empire 18
1.1.5 The transformation of Paliputta 23
1.1.6 Absence of Candagutta and Asoka 25
1.1.7 No contradictory evidence 26
1.2 Social conditions 26
1.3 Economic conditions and trade 27
1.4 The Universal Monarch 29
1.5 Writing 31
Reiious context 2.1 Contact with other religions 332.2 Jainism 332.3 Brahmanism 352.4 The unity of Buddhism 37
Textu trnsmission 3.1 Comparative Studies 39
3.1.1 Overview 393.1.2 Mahsghika comparisons 443.1.3 Later borrowing 48
3.2 The reliability of the oral tradition 503.3 A democracy of conservatism 523.4 How to make it up 543.5 The age of Pali 553.6 Manuscripts 573.7 Scholarly opinion 583.8 Stability of consensus 61
Chrcter of the Ery Buddhist Texts 4.1 Vedic influence on the EBTs 674.2 Literary features 68
4.2.1 Grammar 694.2.2 Vocabulary 704.2.3 Metre 724.2.4 Style 734.2.5 Oral vs. literary tradition 75
4.3 Flavour of a single creator 774.3.1 Consistency and coherence 784.3.2 Internal cross-references 794.3.3 Vivid & realistic 814.3.4 Innovation 834.3.5 Claims of incoherence 84
4.4 Contradictions and oddities not normalised 854.4.1 Odd details & incongruities 854.4.2 Later texts are obvious 90
4.4.3 Life of the Buddha 914.5 Supernormal elements 944.6 Structure 97
4.6.1 The structure of the Sayutta 974.6.2 Fractal structure 98
5.1 Overview 1005.2 Asokan edicts 1025.3 Barabar caves 1075.4 Bodh Gaya 1075.5 Deur Kothar 1085.6 Bhrhut 1105.7 Sc 113
5.7.1 Artwork 1155.7.2 Inscriptions 118
5.8 Piprahwa/Ganwaria 1195.9 Rjagaha 1205.10 Mathur 1215.11 Other Mauryan excavations 1225.12 South Indian art and inscriptions 1235.13 Northern Black Polished Ware culture 124
Deveopment of Buddhism
6.1 First Council 1266.2 Second Council 1286.3 Literary developments 129
6.3.1 Jtakas 1306.4 Doctrinal developments 131
6.4.1 Absence of sectarian views 1336.4.2 Early Abhidhamma 1346.4.3 Kathvatthu 135
6.5 Texts rejected by some 137
7.1 Scientific characteristics 139
7.2 The character of inductive theories 1437.3 The problem of specifics 1447.4 Denialist Buddhism 145
References to s outside the Pali canon are usually from Anlayos com-parative study  or from SuttaCentral, unless otherwise stated.
AN 1:1 Aguttara Nikya, Nipta 1, Sutta 1 in Bodhis translation.
As 1,1 Ahaslin, page 1, line 1 in the Pali edition.D 1 Derge edition of the Tibetan Canon, text 1.D 1 Drgha gama (T1), Sutta 1.Dhp 1 Dhammapada, verse 1 in Normans translation .Dhp-a i 1 Dhammapada commentary, volume 1, page 1 in the Pali
edition.DN 1.1.1 Dgha Nikya, Sutta 1, section 1 (only used for some long
Suttas), paragraph 1 in Walshes translation .DN-a i 1 Dgha Nikya commentary, volume 1, page 1 in the Pali
edition.E 1.1 Ekottara gama (T125), section 1, Sutta 1.E 1.1 Second (partial) Ekottara gama (T126), section 1, Sutta
1.J no. 1 Jtaka, story 1 .J i 1 Jtaka, volume 1, page 1 of the Pali edition.JN 1 Jtaka Nidna, page 1 in Jayawickramas translation .Kv 1.1 Kathvatthu, chapter 1, section 1 in the Pali edition.M 1 Madhyama gama (T no. 26), Sutta 1.
2 The Authenticity of the Early Buddhist Texts
MN 1.1 Majjhima Nikya, Sutta 1, paragraph 1 in amoli andBodhis translation .
MN-a i 1 Majjhima Nikya commentary, volume 1, page 1 in the Pali edition.
Mv 1.1 Mahvasa, chapter 1, verse 1 in Geigers translation .P 1 Peking edition of the Tibetan Canon, text 1.RE 1 Asokan Rock Edict number 1 .S 1 Sayukta gama (T99), Sutta 1.S 1 Second (partial) Sayukta gama (T100), Sutta 1.S 1 Third (partial) Sayukta gama (T101), Sutta 1.SMPS 1.1 Sanskrit Mahparinirva Stra, section 1, paragraph 1
in Allons translation .SN 1:1 Sayutta Nikya, Sayutta 1, Sutta 1 in Bodhis transla-
tion .Snp 1:1 Sutta Nipta, chapter 1, Sutta 1 in Normans translation
.T 1 Taisho edition of the Chinese Tripiaka, text number 1.Ud 1:1 Udna, chapter 1, Sutta 1 in Irelands translation .Vibh 1,1 Vibhaga (the second book of the Abhidhamma), page 1,
line 1 in the Pali edition.Vibh-a 1,1 Vibhaga commentary, page 1, line 1 in the Pali edi-
tion.Vin i 1,1 Vinaya Piaka, volume 1, page 1, line 1 (only included oc-
casionally) in the Pali edition.Vin- 1.1 Vinaya Piaka sub-commentary, part 1, section 1 of the dig-
ital Pali version at http://www.tipitaka.org/romn/.Vism 1,1 Visuddhimagga, page 1, line 1 in the Pali edition./ Separates parallel versions of the same Sutta.
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This work articulates and defends a single thesis: that the Early BuddhistTexts originated in the lifetime of the Buddha or a little later, becausethey were, in the main, spoken by the Buddha and his contemporary disci-ples. This is the most simple, natural, and reasonable explanation for theevidence.
Our argument covers two main areas:
1. The grounds for distinguishing the Early Buddhist Texts (s) fromlater Buddhist literature;
2. The evidence that the s stem from close to the Buddhas lifetime,and that they were generally spoken by the historical Buddha.
Most academic scholars of Early Buddhism cautiously affirm that itis possible that the s contain some authentic sayings of the Buddha.We contend that this drastically understates the evidence. A sympatheticassessment of relevant evidence shows that it is very likely that the bulkof the sayings in the s that are attributed to the Buddha were actuallyspoken by him. It is very unlikely that most of these sayings are inauthentic.
We are grateful to a number of people for providing valuable feedback on adraft version of this work. Professor Richard Gombrich, Ven. Anlayo, Ven.Shravasti Dhammika, Ven. atusita, and Dr. Alexander Wynne all kindlyprovided detailed feedback. The quality of this paper is much improvedas a result. Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi also gave of his valuable time to provide afew comments.
In addition, the content of this work was presented by the authors as aseries of classes at Bodhinyana Monastery in 2013, as well as at a seminarfor the Australian Association of Buddhist Studies on March 13, 2013; inboth these cases we benefited from many illuminating discussions andsuggestions.
We also gratefully acknowledge the support and understanding ofAjahn Brahm and the supporters of the Buddhist Society of Western Aus-tralia, which has provided us with the time and resources needed to un-dertake this project.
A B ? If so, what are they?These are questions of tremendous spiritual and historical interest, aboutwhich there is a range of opinions that often appear to be irreconcilable.Traditionalists insist that the texts were spoken by the Buddha in themost literal of senses, while sceptics assert that we cannot know anythingabout the Buddha for certain, and further, that the notion of authenticity isirrelevant or pernicious. Rarely, however, has the question of authenticitybeen systematically investigated. Seeing the lack of an easily accessiblesummary of the evidence, we decided to assemble this survey.
There are two main aspects to our argument: (1) there is a body ofEarly Buddhist Texts (s), which is clearly distinguishable from all otherBuddhist scripture; (2) these texts originated from a single historical per-sonality, the Buddha. These two aspects are closely linked, so we have nottried to separate them or present them in sequence.
We consider the doctrinal and linguistic evolution of the texts, ground-ed in their social and economic context. No particular methodology ispreferr