The Alien in Israelite Lawby Christiana van Houten

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<ul><li><p>The Alien in Israelite Law by Christiana van HoutenReview by: Victor H. MatthewsJournal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 115, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1995), pp. 722-724Published by: American Oriental SocietyStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/604768 .Accessed: 18/06/2014 00:43</p><p>Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms &amp; Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p><p> .JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.</p><p> .</p><p>American Oriental Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal ofthe American Oriental Society.</p><p>http://www.jstor.org </p><p>This content downloaded from 91.229.229.49 on Wed, 18 Jun 2014 00:43:50 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=aoshttp://www.jstor.org/stable/604768?origin=JSTOR-pdfhttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p></li><li><p>Journal of the American Oriental Society 115.4 (1995) Journal of the American Oriental Society 115.4 (1995) </p><p>Exegetisch-musikalische Beobachtungen zu der Motette, 'Fir- chte dich nicht, ich bin bei dir' (BWV 228)" (pp. 1-19), dis- cusses Bach's theological interpretation of texts from Isaiah 41 and 43 through dramatized music as an effective means of tra- dition transmission. Kai Brodersen, in "Salomon in Alexan- dria? Der weise Richter in 1 Konige 3, antiker Bildtradition und P. Oxy. 2944" (pp. 21-30), collects parallels to Solomon as wise judge in Greek texts and iconography from the fourth to the first centuries B.C., and concludes that the origin of the motif is probably to be found in Egypt. Russell Fuller, in "The </p><p>Blessing of Levi in Deuteronomy 33, Malachi 2, and Qumran" </p><p>(pp. 31-44), traces the reappropriation of the blessing in Mal. </p><p>2:4-9, where Levi is an ideal of the past, and in 4Q175 and </p><p>4Q177, where it is given eschatological reference to a priestly messiah. Dieter Georgi, in "Die Aristoteles- und Theophrast- ausgabe des Andronikus von Rhodes: Ein Beitrag zur Kanons- </p><p>problematik" (pp. 45-78), challenges current notions of canon </p><p>development. He suggests that the canon refers to the official sanction given to a defined collection of writings judged to em- </p><p>body the faith, but only after the church became a state insti- </p><p>tution and quite contrary to the attitude towards written texts in </p><p>the early church. Manfred G6rg, in "Juda: Namesdeutung in </p><p>Tradition und Etymologie" (pp. 79-87), proposes an Egyptian </p><p>etymology for Judah, based on the verbal root HD and used with </p><p>a divine name E1/Yhwh, meaning the god "vanquishes." Ingrid </p><p>Grill-Ahollinger, in "Biblische Gattungen als didaktische Im- </p><p>pulse im Religionsunterricht" (pp. 89-114), uses the form- </p><p>critical and theological discussion of narrative as a pedagogical method in the German Gymnasium, with application to the </p><p>David and Goliath story. Baruch Halpern, in "The Baal (and the Asherah) in Seventh- </p><p>Century Judah: Yhwh's Retainers Retired" (pp. 115-54), argues that the "Israelite elite" at the end of the Iron Age arrived at </p><p>monotheism by rejecting as foreign their own gods, the baCalim, who had previously been members of the heavenly court. Jorg Jeremias, in "Das unzugingliche Heiligtum: Zur letzten Vision </p><p>des Amos (Am 9, 1-4)" (pp. 155-67), interprets the vision as </p><p>a continuation of the earlier visions, but also as reflecting the </p><p>Judean Zion tradition (cf. Isaiah 6). Kenichi Kida, in "The </p><p>Sovereignty of God and the Destiny of the Nations in the </p><p>Prophecies of Amos, Isaiah and Jeremiah" (pp. 169-81), sur- </p><p>veys the application of social ethics in a universalistic context </p><p>by these pre-exilic prophets. Hans Klein, in "Zur Wirkungsge- schichte von Psalm 8" (pp. 183-98), shows that the primary themes of Psalm 8 have a very different development in the </p><p>Old Testament and Judaism from that in early Christianity. Only in the latter is there any messianic/Christological connection, </p><p>and, in the case of Matthew, his understanding of the psalm leads him to modify the passion narrative. Helmut Koester, in </p><p>"Jesu Leiden und Tod als Erzahlung" (pp. 199-204), suggests that the passion narrative developed as a liturgical legend in- </p><p>terpreting Isaiah 53. Thomas Kriger, in "Genesis 38: Ein 'Lehr- </p><p>stick' alttestamentlicher Ethik" (pp. 205-26), sees this text in </p><p>Exegetisch-musikalische Beobachtungen zu der Motette, 'Fir- chte dich nicht, ich bin bei dir' (BWV 228)" (pp. 1-19), dis- cusses Bach's theological interpretation of texts from Isaiah 41 and 43 through dramatized music as an effective means of tra- dition transmission. Kai Brodersen, in "Salomon in Alexan- dria? Der weise Richter in 1 Konige 3, antiker Bildtradition und P. Oxy. 2944" (pp. 21-30), collects parallels to Solomon as wise judge in Greek texts and iconography from the fourth to the first centuries B.C., and concludes that the origin of the motif is probably to be found in Egypt. Russell Fuller, in "The </p><p>Blessing of Levi in Deuteronomy 33, Malachi 2, and Qumran" </p><p>(pp. 31-44), traces the reappropriation of the blessing in Mal. </p><p>2:4-9, where Levi is an ideal of the past, and in 4Q175 and </p><p>4Q177, where it is given eschatological reference to a priestly messiah. Dieter Georgi, in "Die Aristoteles- und Theophrast- ausgabe des Andronikus von Rhodes: Ein Beitrag zur Kanons- </p><p>problematik" (pp. 45-78), challenges current notions of canon </p><p>development. He suggests that the canon refers to the official sanction given to a defined collection of writings judged to em- </p><p>body the faith, but only after the church became a state insti- </p><p>tution and quite contrary to the attitude towards written texts in </p><p>the early church. Manfred G6rg, in "Juda: Namesdeutung in </p><p>Tradition und Etymologie" (pp. 79-87), proposes an Egyptian </p><p>etymology for Judah, based on the verbal root HD and used with </p><p>a divine name E1/Yhwh, meaning the god "vanquishes." Ingrid </p><p>Grill-Ahollinger, in "Biblische Gattungen als didaktische Im- </p><p>pulse im Religionsunterricht" (pp. 89-114), uses the form- </p><p>critical and theological discussion of narrative as a pedagogical method in the German Gymnasium, with application to the </p><p>David and Goliath story. Baruch Halpern, in "The Baal (and the Asherah) in Seventh- </p><p>Century Judah: Yhwh's Retainers Retired" (pp. 115-54), argues that the "Israelite elite" at the end of the Iron Age arrived at </p><p>monotheism by rejecting as foreign their own gods, the baCalim, who had previously been members of the heavenly court. Jorg Jeremias, in "Das unzugingliche Heiligtum: Zur letzten Vision </p><p>des Amos (Am 9, 1-4)" (pp. 155-67), interprets the vision as </p><p>a continuation of the earlier visions, but also as reflecting the </p><p>Judean Zion tradition (cf. Isaiah 6). Kenichi Kida, in "The </p><p>Sovereignty of God and the Destiny of the Nations in the </p><p>Prophecies of Amos, Isaiah and Jeremiah" (pp. 169-81), sur- </p><p>veys the application of social ethics in a universalistic context </p><p>by these pre-exilic prophets. Hans Klein, in "Zur Wirkungsge- schichte von Psalm 8" (pp. 183-98), shows that the primary themes of Psalm 8 have a very different development in the </p><p>Old Testament and Judaism from that in early Christianity. Only in the latter is there any messianic/Christological connection, </p><p>and, in the case of Matthew, his understanding of the psalm leads him to modify the passion narrative. Helmut Koester, in </p><p>"Jesu Leiden und Tod als Erzahlung" (pp. 199-204), suggests that the passion narrative developed as a liturgical legend in- </p><p>terpreting Isaiah 53. Thomas Kriger, in "Genesis 38: Ein 'Lehr- </p><p>stick' alttestamentlicher Ethik" (pp. 205-26), sees this text in </p><p>critical dialogue with other Old Testament legal and religious traditions. Heinz-Wolfgang Kuhn, in "Die drei wichtigsten Qum- </p><p>ranparallelen zum Galaterbrief: Unbekannte Wege der Tradi- tion" (pp. 227-54), explains Qumran's similarities with Paul as </p><p>reflecting his background within Judaism. Norbert Lohfink, in "Zur Fabel in Dtn 31-32" (pp. 255-79), explores the "plot" or narrative structure of these chapters as a basis for their unity. Peter Marinkovic, in "Was wissen Wir uber den zweiten Tempel aus Sach 1-8?" (pp. 281-95), proposes that Zechariah is more concerned with the establishment of the Yhwh community than with the physical structure of the temple. Eckhard von Nord- </p><p>heim, in "Das Gottesurteil als Schutzordeal fur die Frau nach Numeri 5" (pp. 297-309), asserts that, unlike the ordeals of the </p><p>Middle Ages, the ordeal envisioned in Numbers 5 was never a </p><p>physical threat to the woman undergoing it. Robert B. Robinson, in "The Coherence of the Jericho Narrative: A Literary Reading of Joshua 6" (pp. 311-35), gives a synchronic reading of the </p><p>story. Josef Scharbert, in "Die Landverheissung an die Vater als </p><p>einfache Zusage, als Eid und als 'Bund'" (pp. 337-54), traces </p><p>the development of the land promise theme in the Pentateuch </p><p>and Deuteronomistic corpus. Eberhard Schwarz, in "'Ziehet aus </p><p>ihrer Mitte und sondert euch ab!' Abgrenzung als Ursprungssit- uation paulinischer Gemeindebildung: Beobachtungen zu 2 Kor </p><p>6, 14-7, 1" (pp. 355-72), sees this as the initial stage in Paul's </p><p>attempt to establish the Christian community as distinct from </p><p>the synagogue. Christopher R. Seitz, in "The Patience of Job in </p><p>the Epistle of James" (pp. 373-82), understands the reference to </p><p>the "patience" of Job in James as an erroneous rendering of the </p><p>text that should be understood as "endurance," which is more </p><p>appropriate to the book of Job as a whole. Helmut Utzschneider, in "Zur vierfachen Lektiire des Alten Testaments: Bibelrezeption als Erfahrung von Diskrepanz und Perspektive" (pp. 383-401), </p><p>attempts a modern "fourfold reading of scripture": a historical- </p><p>literary, a psychological-rhetorical, a moralistic-political, and a </p><p>theological one. While not all pieces conform strictly to the theme of the title, </p><p>most fit it with interesting variety. As a whole the quality of </p><p>contributions is very high and a worthy tribute to this respected scholar. </p><p>JOHN VAN SETERS </p><p>UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA </p><p>The Alien in Israelite Law. By CHRISTIANA VAN HOUTEN. JSOT </p><p>Supplement Series, 107. Sheffield: JSOT PRESS, 1991. Pp. 200. ?22.50, $39.50. </p><p>In this partial revision of her Ph.D. dissertation, van Houten </p><p>examines the process of how "the status of the alien, the con- </p><p>tent of the law, the form of the law and the motivation for </p><p>critical dialogue with other Old Testament legal and religious traditions. Heinz-Wolfgang Kuhn, in "Die drei wichtigsten Qum- </p><p>ranparallelen zum Galaterbrief: Unbekannte Wege der Tradi- tion" (pp. 227-54), explains Qumran's similarities with Paul as </p><p>reflecting his background within Judaism. Norbert Lohfink, in "Zur Fabel in Dtn 31-32" (pp. 255-79), explores the "plot" or narrative structure of these chapters as a basis for their unity. Peter Marinkovic, in "Was wissen Wir uber den zweiten Tempel aus Sach 1-8?" (pp. 281-95), proposes that Zechariah is more concerned with the establishment of the Yhwh community than with the physical structure of the temple. Eckhard von Nord- </p><p>heim, in "Das Gottesurteil als Schutzordeal fur die Frau nach Numeri 5" (pp. 297-309), asserts that, unlike the ordeals of the </p><p>Middle Ages, the ordeal envisioned in Numbers 5 was never a </p><p>physical threat to the woman undergoing it. Robert B. Robinson, in "The Coherence of the Jericho Narrative: A Literary Reading of Joshua 6" (pp. 311-35), gives a synchronic reading of the </p><p>story. Josef Scharbert, in "Die Landverheissung an die Vater als </p><p>einfache Zusage, als Eid und als 'Bund'" (pp. 337-54), traces </p><p>the development of the land promise theme in the Pentateuch </p><p>and Deuteronomistic corpus. Eberhard Schwarz, in "'Ziehet aus </p><p>ihrer Mitte und sondert euch ab!' Abgrenzung als Ursprungssit- uation paulinischer Gemeindebildung: Beobachtungen zu 2 Kor </p><p>6, 14-7, 1" (pp. 355-72), sees this as the initial stage in Paul's </p><p>attempt to establish the Christian community as distinct from </p><p>the synagogue. Christopher R. Seitz, in "The Patience of Job in </p><p>the Epistle of James" (pp. 373-82), understands the reference to </p><p>the "patience" of Job in James as an erroneous rendering of the </p><p>text that should be understood as "endurance," which is more </p><p>appropriate to the book of Job as a whole. Helmut Utzschneider, in "Zur vierfachen Lektiire des Alten Testaments: Bibelrezeption als Erfahrung von Diskrepanz und Perspektive" (pp. 383-401), </p><p>attempts a modern "fourfold reading of scripture": a historical- </p><p>literary, a psychological-rhetorical, a moralistic-political, and a </p><p>theological one. While not all pieces conform strictly to the theme of the title, </p><p>most fit it with interesting variety. As a whole the quality of </p><p>contributions is very high and a worthy tribute to this respected scholar. </p><p>JOHN VAN SETERS </p><p>UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA </p><p>The Alien in Israelite Law. By CHRISTIANA VAN HOUTEN. JSOT </p><p>Supplement Series, 107. Sheffield: JSOT PRESS, 1991. Pp. 200. ?22.50, $39.50. </p><p>In this partial revision of her Ph.D. dissertation, van Houten </p><p>examines the process of how "the status of the alien, the con- </p><p>tent of the law, the form of the law and the motivation for </p><p>722 722 </p><p>This content downloaded from 91.229.229.49 on Wed, 18 Jun 2014 00:43:50 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p></li><li><p>Reviews of Books </p><p>obedience have changed through time" (p. 173). Taking as her </p><p>premise that "the intent of laws is to reform society" (p. 160), she notes that each of the major legal collections (Covenant Code, Deuteronomic, and Priestly) are reform documents, in- tended to reformulate the laws in response to new socio- historical situations; that is, they state what ought to be rather than what may have been actual legal practice. The pre- Deuteronomic pronouncements on the alien are described as </p><p>apodictic in form, probably reflecting the more formal actions of the cult. Later legal statements are termed "preached law," addressed to the people in a cultic setting with the intent of </p><p>convincing them of right behavior and attitude in order to live </p><p>holy (pure) lives. She concludes that the expression of the legal status of the </p><p>alien shifted from laws dealing specifically with foreigners to whom hospitality and justice are required (Covenant Code), to </p><p>"legislation dealing with a class of vulnerable, landless people" (p. 164), creating an economic support system (Deuteronomic Code). This second stage made no provision for aliens joining the Israelite community. They are clearly designated as "second- class" citizens. The first level of redaction of the Priestly laws also reflected this attitude of separation. However, a second re- daction,...</p></li></ul>