the 20th century

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  1. 1. From the Aftermath of World War I to World War II 6th Grade Social Studies Mr. Ellis THE 20TH CENTURY: CONFLICT & CHANGE IN EUROPE
  2. 2. Russia began the 20th century with defeat at the hands of the Japanese during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. Russias defeat caused many to question the power and influence of the Czar. Massive protest against the Czar by citizens in 1905 (Bloody Sunday). Soldiers at the Czars Winter Palace responded with force, killing peaceful protesters. Dumas (legislative body) formed in 1906 to address concerns of the Russian people, but held no real power. Russia entered World War I in 1914. By 1917, Russia was reeling from heavy losses of men and material (approx. 1.5 million Russian soldiers died during WWI). At the time, Russia lacked the industrial resources of Germany (Central Powers). Sources: Rosenberg, J. (n.d.). The Russian Revolution of 1917. Retrieved from http://history1900s.about.com/od/Russian-Revolution/a/Russian-Revolution.htm Russian Revolution. (2009). Retrieved June 25, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/russian-revolution RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
  3. 3. Russian Czar (emperor with absolute power) Nicholas II (1894 to 1917)was ruler during Russo-Japanese War and World War I. Russias economy was floundering, as it was largely agrarian and had relied on serfdom for hundreds of years. Industrialization had been slow to come, and workers labored under terrible conditions. Power was centralized in the hands of an elite few. Nicholas II largely ignored civil unrest and declining economic conditions in Russia as he left to lead troops personally at the Eastern front (Sept. 1915). Nicholas II left his wife (of German heritage) and her advisor, the holy man Rasputin, to see to the affairs of the government. Rasputin held enormous power, but was unpopular. He was killed in Dec. of 1916. Source: J. Llewellyn et al, Russia before World War I at Alpha History, Retrieved from http://alphahistory.com/worldwar1/russia/ Firstworldwar.com. (n.d.). Retrieved June 25, 2015, from http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/nicholasii.htm RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
  4. 4. There were actually two revolutions (The February 1917 Revolution & The Bolshevik 1917 Revolution). In 1917, most Russians were poor peasants, with a small working class emerging in the cities. Workers struggled for rights. Feb. 23rd March 8th 1917 Workers in Petrograd protest working conditions and lack of food. Nicholas II abdicates the throne on March 15th, 1917. The Dumas forms a provisional government under Kerensky (a liberal reformer) continued fighting with the Allies (an unpopular decision). Sources: J. Llewellyn et al, Russia before World War I at Alpha History, Retrieved from http://alphahistory.com/worldwar1/russia/ Firstworldwar.com. (n.d.). Retrieved June 25, 2015, from http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/nicholasii.htm FEBRUARY 1917 REVOLUTION
  5. 5. Soviets Local/community groups (councils) of academics, workers, soldiers seeking change. Kadets Constitutional Democratic Party advocated for Constitutional Monarchy Mensheviks Minority division of the Social Democratic Party. Leon Trotsky (another key figure) was originally a member. Bolsheviks Majority radical members of Social Democratic Party. Founded by Vladimir Lenin. Marxist ideology. Marxism Theories and ideas of Karl Marx. Advocated for a class less society. Socialist Order. Source: Menshevik | political party, Russia. (n.d.). Retrieved June 27, 2015, from http://www.britannica.com/topic/Menshevik Richard, C. (n.d.). The Bolshevik-Menshevik Split. Retrieved June 27, 2015, from http://www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/bolshevik-menshevik-split COMPETING INTERESTS & THE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION
  6. 6. Lenin (lawyer, Marxist, Revolutionary 1870-1924) had been in exile He returned to Russia after the February Revolution. Lenin turned against the provisional government. His Bolsheviks seized control October 25th 1917. Lenin becomes head of the government. Lenin advocated for worker control of factories. Lenin ended Russian involvement in World War I (peace with Germany), but soldiers returning home still had to face lack of resources and land. The Russian civil war pitted Lenins Reds (Bolsheviks) against the Whites (loyal to Czar). Millions of Russians died in the conflict, and Bolsheviks emerge victorious. The government and economy are decimated. Rosenberg, J. (n.d.). The Russian Revolution of 1917. Retrieved from http://history1900s.about.com/od/Russian-Revolution/a/Russian-Revolution.htm Russian Revolution. (2009). Retrieved June 25, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/russian-revolution THE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION AND CIVIL WAR
  7. 7. July 16-18 of 1918 Nicholas II and his entire family are assassinated. 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is created. Lenin dies in 1924. Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin vie for power. Stalin becomes leader of the Communist Party and rules through brutal means. His plans to rapidly modernize the Soviet Union created massive hardship for peasants and farmers. Stalin would go on to make peace, through a nonaggression pact, with Germany just prior to World War II. Germany would later violate the pact, drawing Russia to the side of the Allies. AFTERMATH OF THE RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR