The 1995 Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe), Japan, earthquake: T. L. Holzer, GSA Today, 5(8), 1995, pp 153–156, 165, 167

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  • GEOLOGY:EARTHQUAKES 295w

    logical approach has been developed, which is more suitable for tectonic settings such as the Italian one and which allows complete seismic hazard analyses, where geological, mechan- ical and geophysical characteristics of the crust are taken into account of the same time to formulate an overall seismotec- tonic model of a given area which explains all the available tectonic and seismological information. To give an example of the possibilities of the method, two overall seismotectonic models are proposed: one for the central part of Italy and one for the western USA. (from Author)

    967033 Uncertainty modeling of earthquake hazards M. Sanchez-Silva, D. I. Blockley & C. A. Taylor, Micro- computers in Civil Engineering, 11(2), 1996, pp 99-l 14. A model is proposed that enables factors to be put together to assess the proneness to failure of a particular project during an earthquake. Uncertainty is classified into fuzziness, incompleteness, and randomness. Hierarchically arranged holons describe the essential form of the project and capture inherent fmziness. The model includes tests (such as audits) that a project must pass in order to be declared dependably safe. Engineering and scientific models are included as appropriate. An interval probability is used to measure the available evidence about the dependability that a holon will be able to sustain its function during an earthquake. (from Authors)

    967034 Earthquakes and seismic hazards in Central America F. Guendel & H. Bungum, Seismological Research Letters, 66(5), 1995, pp 19-25. The high Ievels of seismicity and thus seismic hazard in Central America are evident from the regular occurrence of large earthquakes. As such Central America constitutes one of the most important regions to focus on under the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (XDNDR), and there is now a substantial number of projects and programs in the region under IDNDR auspices. This paper describes some of the activities within and results from one of these projects, namely Reduction of Natural Disaster in Central America, Earthquake Preparedness and Hazard Mitigation. The first part of the project has been concerned with the strengthening of local data centers and the establish- ment of a regional data center based on the existing seismological networks and facilities in the region. The second part of the project, to be covered in the present paper, has been concerned with seismic zonation and earth- quake hazard assessment. (from Authors)

    967035 SIG et evaluation des risques naturels: application aux risques sismiques de Quito (Evaluating natural hazards using GIS: the case of seismic hazard in Quito) J.-L. Chatelain, B. Guillier, M. Souris, E. Duperier & H. Yepes, Mappemonde, 9513, 1995, pp 17-22. The paper briefly outlines the successive stages of the scenario of an earthquake in the city of Quito. The required cross- referencing of data of various origins (Earth Sciences, Civil Engineering and Sociodemography) has been carried out using the SAVANE GIS. As a result, graphical documents describing the citys seismic sensitivity have been produced which have been useful in raising awareness among policy makers and economic authorites. (English summary)

    967036 Monitoring and analysis of seismicity in the Ostrava- Karvina coal mining district K. Holub, J. Slavik & P. Kalenda, Acta Geophysics Polonica, 43(l), 1995, pp I l-31. This paper summarizes research activities related to the monitoring and analysis of induced seismicity in the Ostrava- Karvina Coal Mine District. The measured data are pro- cessed in the operational centre where the three-level seismo-

    logical data is completed and use for further analyses which usually comprise delimitation of seismically active regions and/or tectonic blocks, monitoring of seismic activity trends in time and space, energy-frequency distrib~tiQn, Benioff s graphs and Gumbels asymptotic functions. (from Authors)

    967037 Pyrgos earthquake damages relation with geological and ge E. L. Lekkas, Soii Dynamics & Ear 15(2), 1996, pp 61-68. On 26 Marsh 1993 seismic activity at Cilia, West Peloponnesse, Greece caused extensive damage. The severe dest~~ctio~~ was observed at the city of Pyrgos. Recording of damage was conducted according to the EMS-1992. A~~iication of this method at the wider area of Pyrgos showed that the highest was VIII and the minimum was V. Detailed geological mapping and geotechnical investigation revealed a number of geological formations with special lit~~lo~~oa~ and geotech- nical characteristics. Faults that follow an E-W general direction dominate at the area and are part of t zone that gave the earthquakes. synthesis of data showed that there is a clear correlation intensities observed and the geological, tectonic and geotech- nical conditions. (Authors)

    967038 Focal mechanism of a recent event i using a sparse very broadband network Guangwei Fan & T. Wallace, ~eisrn~i~~~c~~ Research Letters, 66(5), 1995, pp 13-18. In recent years, the rapid expansion of the Global Seismo- graphic Network (GSN) has greatly e~~~~~ed the ability to monitor seismic events. Equipped with very broadband, three-component sensors, the GSN stations provide good coverage on most continents and co~t~b~te high quality data to basic scientific research and other mo~ito~~g purposes. At the same time, several GSN stations in a region of particular interest may be considered as a sparse regional network and become invaluable assets for earthquake source studies because source parameters of small tc: moderate-sized earth- quakes provide important constraints on the local crustal structure, the stress field and the regional tectonics. This paper presents the results of a source study by using the very broadband waveform inversion from a sparse regional net- work in South Africa and gives a brief discussion of the implications. (from Author)

    967039 The 1995 Wanshin-Awaji (Kobe), Ja e~~t~~~a~e T. L. Holzer, GSA Today, S(8), 1995, ~p~~~3-~~6,~6~,~67. The January 17, 1995, earthquake that devastated Kobe, Japan, caused about $100 billion in property losses, making it the most expensive earthquake ever to strike an urban area. The earthquake killed 5378 people, damaged or destroyed about 152 050 buildings, and incinerated the equivalent of 70 US city blocks. The earthquake confims the credibility of predictions of major property losses when urban areas in the US are subjected to local moderate earthquakes. It also provides an unusual opportunity to study the effects of near- source ground shaking on both the b~~~d~n~s and infrastruc- ture of a modem city and to deduce ~rn~li~at~~~s for the US. (from Author)

    967040 On the 2rigi.n of Australian ear~hqu~~~~ ;~5~o~kulm, Volcanology & ~eisma~o~y~ Y6(2), 1994, pp

    This paper describes the spatio-tern Australian earthquakes that occurred during the past 200 years and produced ground shaking intensities of more than IV on the mainland. Large ~artbq~akes migrate along the continental margin from east to south, then westward, and so on. These patterns were used to derive a seismic prediction for Australia for the next decades. A sc~e~at~~ model is

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