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  • NARRATIVECommunicative PurposeTo amuse / entertain the readers.

  • NARRATIVETypes of Narrative TextFairy taleMythLegendFable

  • NARRATIVEText OrganizationOrientationComplicationResolutionRe-orientation

  • A Countryman and a SnakeA countryman's son stepped on a snake's tail accidentally. The tail suddenly turned and hit him so that he died. The father was very angry so that he cut off part of the snakes tail. Then, the snake in revenge stung several of the farmer's cattle. It caused him great loss. However, the farmer decided to stop the fight with the snake. He brought food and honey to the mouth of its lair, and said to it, "Let's forget and forgive. Perhaps you were right to punish my son, and take revenge on my cattle, but surely I was right in trying to revenge him. Now that we are both satisfied, why should not we be friends again?" "No, no," said the snake. "Take away your gifts. You can never forget the death of your son, nor I the loss of my tail. Injuries may be forgiven, but not forgotten.

  • RECOUNTCommunicative PurposeTo provide factual info / to give someone an account of event happened in the past.To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining

  • RECOUNTTypes of Recount Text- article- police report- news item- historical accounts- letters- journals- incident reports

  • RECOUNTText Organization 1. Orientation (setting, character)2. Events / sequence of events (tell what happened, in what sequence)3. Re-orientation / Conclusion (optional closure of events)

  • RECOUNTGrammatical Features:- Action Verb (e.g. helped, walked)- Adjective- Connections to do with time and sequence (e.g. after that, before, then)- Pronouns- Punctuation- Simple past tense- Adverbs- Compound and complex sentences

  • RECOUNTExample:I was driving along the coast road when the car suddenly lurched to one side.

    At first, I thought a tyre had gone but then I saw telegraph poles collapsing like matchsticks. The rocks came tumbling across the road and I had to abandon the car.

    When I got back to town, well, as I said there wasnt much left.



  • DESCRIPTIVECommunicative PurposeTo describe a particular person, place, or thing

  • DESCRIPTIVETypes of Descriptive Text- autobiography- magazine

  • DESCRIPTIVEText Organization1. Identification (what, where, or who is the subject being described)2. Description (describes parts, qualities, characteristics)

  • DESCRIPTIVEGrammatical Features:- Adjective- Pronouns- Verbs and verbs phrases- Simple Past Tense- Simple Present Tense- Preposition- Adverbs

  • DESCRIPTIVEExample:Natural Bridge National Park is a luscious tropical rainforest.

    It is located 110 kilometers south of Brisbane and is reached by following the Pacific Highway to Nerang and then by traveling through the Numinbah Valley. This scenic roadway lies in the shadow of the Lamington National Park.

    The phenomenon of the rock formed into a natural arch and the cave through which a waterfall cascades is a short 1 kilometer walk below a dense rainforest canopy from the main picnic area. Swimming is permitted in the rock pools. Night-time visitors to the cave will discover the unique feature of the glow worms.

    Picnic areas offer toilets, barbecues, shelter sheds, water and fireplaces; however, overnight camping is not permitted.

  • Compose your DescriptionOutline approval on outlineFirst draft Peer correctionSecond draft Teachers correctionFinal draft

  • DISCUSSIONCommunicative PurposeTo present (at least) two points of view about an issue.

  • DISCUSSIONTypes of Discussion TextNewspaper editorials, debates, thesis, journals.

  • DISCUSSIONText OrganizationIssueArguments forArguments againstConclusion or recommendation

  • DISCUSSIONExampleGenetic research has produced both exciting and frightening possibilities. Scientists are now able to create new forms of life in the laboratory due to the development of gene splicing.

    On one hand, the ability to create life in the laboratory could greatly benefit mankind. For example because it is very expensive to obtain insulin from natural sources, scientists have developed a method to manufacture it inexpensively in the laboratory.

    Another beneficial application of gene splicing is in an agriculture. Scientists foresee the day when new plants will be developed using nitrogen from the air instead of from fertilizer. Therefore food production could be increased. In addition, entirely new plants could be developed to feed the worlds hungry people.

  • DISCUSSIONNot everyone is excited about gene splicing, however. Some people feel that it could have terrible consequences. A laboratory accident, for example, might cause an epidemic of an unknown disease that could wipe out humanity.

    As a result of this controversy, the government has made rules to control genetic experiments. While some members of the scientific community feel that these rules are too strict, many other people feel that they are still not strict enough.

  • REPORTCommunicative PurposeTo describe the way things are, with reference of a range of natural, man made and social phenomena in our environment. (To inform the reader of specific subject).

  • REPORTTypes of Recount TextReference books, science reports, weather reports.

  • REPORTText Organization1. General Classification2. Description

  • REPORTEXAMPLEDo you know what fungi are? Well, fungi are simple, plant-like organisms that grow up from the ground. There are more than 50,000 different types of fungi, including mushrooms and toadstools, yeasts and moulds. Fungi are not plants, you know. They have no chlorophyll with which to make food from the sun. They do not have leaves nor flowers. Fungi feed either from other plants and animals or from the dead matter that has rotted in the soil.

  • REPORT: PRESENTATIONMake a report about a fact/social phenomenon around usThe social phenomenon should be something not widely knownCreate a presentation of 5 7 minutes describing the phenomenon aboveUse AVA (slide, video, pictures, graph, etc)Conduct a small research about it to get a dataDescribe: what is it?how does it happen?where/when does it happen?is there any bad/good effects of the social phenomenon?any interesting facts we should know about it?

  • NEWS ITEMCommunicative PurposeTo inform the readers, listeners, or viewers about events of the day / important events that happen on a particular days.

  • NEWS ITEMTypes of News Item TextNewspaper, magazine, other informative articles.

  • NEWS ITEMText Organization1. Newsworthy event2. Background events3. Sources

  • NEWS ITEMEXAMPLEJakarta: Freeport McMoran Copper & Co.Inc., the worlds second-largest copper producer had its maximum ore production in Indonesia cut 26 percent on environmental concerns.The government only approves a Freeport ore output this year of 220,000 tons a day to reduce the impact on the environment, Witoro S. Soelarno, head of mine inspection at the Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry, said. The previous limit was 300,000 tons a day, he said.Phoenix-based Freeport produced on average 229,000 tons of copper and gold ore a day from its Grasberg mine in 2006.

  • REVIEWCommunicative PurposeTo critique, evaluate, or analyze an art work (events, books, movies, etc) and make your point of view known.

  • REVIEWTypes of Review TextMagazines, editorials, newspaper editorials, websites, journals, etc.

  • REVIEWText Organization1. Orientation2. Interpretive Recount3. Evaluation4. Evaluative Summation

  • REVIEWEXAMPLEThis series is based on a true story of a girl named Aya Kito who was stricken by a cruel disease called Spinocerebellar Degeneration. This disease affects Ayas nervous system and as the name suggests, it poses a degeneration of her movement, and will eventually affect her mobility, speech, and even her ability to eat. The theme of this series is very depressing but the overall tone is very heartwarming. Aya Kitos diary was made into a best-selling book and the series follows her sufferings as she struggles to find hope, strength and courage to face such a devastating disease.

  • ANALYTICAL EXPOSITIONCommunicative PurposeTo persuade readers or listeners that something is the case / to give a balanced argument to readers by looking a subject from many points of view.

    Untuk memaparkan dan mempengaruhi pembaca bahwa ada masalah yang perlu mendapat perhatian

  • ANALYTICAL EXPOSITIONTypes of Analytical Exposition TextNewspapers, editorials, debates, speeches

  • ANALYTICAL EXPOSITIONText Organization1. Thesis (Statement of writers point of view)2. Arguments (Points and Elaboration)3. Reiteration (Restatement of writers position/point of view)

  • ANALYTICAL EXPOSITIONEXAMPLEThe Australia-Indonesia Youth Exchange Programme (AIYEP), which began in 1981, is beneficial for both young people of Indonesia and Australia, and the two countries themselves. This is so for a number of reasons.First, the participants can get an opportunity for first-hand experience of living in and being an active part of another culture. Their experience is from a rural stay, in which the groups live in a village, and an urban stay, where they live in a town/city. In the two places they stay with host families.

  • ANALYTICAL EXPOSITIONBesides, they can develop their personality in teamwork and negotiating skills, leadershi


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