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Test Automation Lets talk business Igor Gershovich Connected Testing, Inc. www.connectedtesting.comigershovich@connectedtesting.com Slide 2 Overview Test Automation Myths Return on Investment (ROI) Frameworks Slide 3 Test Automation Myths Slide 4 Myth #1 - Test Automation is simple, that every tester can do it This myth is promoted by the tool sales people. They are trying to promote the following test automation process: Record the script Enhance the script by adding functions and data driving Run the scripts Report results Under the influence of this myth QA manager can proudly report: All our testers are developing test automation. Slide 5 Reality - Test automation is a software development task Automation should be designed, developed and tested You need to have some kind of a programming background to implement test automation. Test Automation is not as complex as C++/C#/Java development. Test automation standards should be developed Automated test components are assets that should be treated like application source code Slide 6 Myth #2 Commercial test tools are expensive Under the influence of this myth some companies, especially the small ones: Try to develop their own test automation tools Use scripting languages like Perl and Ruby Use shareware test tools Do not consider test automation at all Slide 7 Reality Commercial tools are cheap Per seat license for most expensive automation tool is $8K This tool will be used for 5 years. Maintenance/Support fees are 20% of tool cost or $1,800 per year The cost of this tool is $8K/5+$1,800 = $3,100 per year The automation developer cost with overhead is $100K per year The cost of this tool is just 3% of the person who uses it, but productivity gain can be very significant Slide 8 Commercial Tool Benefits: Customer support. Many of the open source tools come and go with little to no support Most commercial tools are constantly being updated as technologies change Most commercial tools usually have more functionality (QTP can test various GUI applications: Web,.Net, Java, VB, C/C++, PowerBuilder, etc. vs. WATIR Web only) Commercial tools usually have a large community of users, which translates into better availability of qualified resources Commercial tools require less advanced programming More test automation frameworks are available for commercial tools Commercial tools are integrated with Test Management tools which makes reporting and execution much simpler. Slide 9 Absolutely Unscientific research: Employer demand by tool expertise (May, 2008) Slide 10 Dice search results across US (30 days) ToolSearch stringMatches QTPQtp OR quicktest OR "quick test613 Functional Tester "rational robot" OR "functional tester 118 SilkTestsilktest OR "silk test86 TestCompletetestcomplete OR "test complete26 TestPartnertestpartner OR "test partner19 VSTEVSTE AND test45 WATIRwatir26 Selenium 108 Slide 11 Slide 12 Excerpt from IDC Report: Worldwide Automated Software Quality 2007-2011 Forecast and 2006 Vendor Shares Slide 13 Slide 14 Return On Investment (ROI) Slide 15 Classic ROI Calculation ROI = BENEFIT/COST Automation Cost = Price Of HW + Price of SW + Development Cost + Maintenance Cost + Execution Cost Manual Testing Cost = Development Cost + Maintenance Cost + Execution Cost ROI = (Manual Testing Cost - Automation Cost)/Automation Cost Looks right, isnt it? Slide 16 Problems with Classic ROI Calculation You cant compare Automated Testing and Manual Testing. There are not the same and they provide different information about the AUT. You cant compare cost of multiple execution of automated tests vs. manual tests. You would never dream of executing that many test cases manually. Slide 17 Automation Real ROI ROI value IS NOT the value of Automation vs. Cost of executing these tests manually Automation ROI value IS the benefit of this type of testing, and it can be: Reducing Time to Market Increased Test Efficiency (Productivity) Increased Test Effectiveness Slide 18 Reduced Time to Market Can get a greater market share Makes people available to work on other projects Higher margins, if no competitive products are currently available Slide 19 Productivity and Effectiveness More testing gets done faster, increasing the odds of finding defects Defects found early have better chances to be fixed Manual Testers can concentrate on clever ways to finding defects, instead of typing test inputs and verify output. About 7% of bug fixes create new bugs, sometimes in already tested parts of the system. With automation you can rerun tests for those modules. This almost never happened when testing done manually. Slide 20 ROI summary Each project requires different types of automation - there is often no easy formula available to calculate ROI Performing ROI calculation can help to determine upfront what type of automation, what level of skills, what tools will be required. Slide 21 Automation Frameworks Slide 22 Test Automation Framework A Test Automation Framework is a set of assumptions, concepts and tools that provide support for Automated Software Testing. Correctly implemented Test Automation Framework can further improve ROI by reducing the development and maintenance costs. Slide 23 Types of Test Automation Frameworks Modular Data-Driven KeywordDriven Model-Based Slide 24 Modular framework The Modular framework is the natural progression from Record-and-Playback The modular framework seeks to minimize this repetition of code by grouping similar actions into modules (e.g.: login) Test Data is in a script This is what tool sales people are promoting. Slide 25 Data-Driven/Keyword Driven These frameworks are similar in that the data is separated from the test script The script is just a "driver" or delivery mechanism for the data. The difference: In keyword-driven testing, the navigation data and test data are contained in the data source In data-driven testing, only test data is contained in the data source. Slide 26 Model-Based testing Model-based testing is software testing in which test cases are derived in whole or in part from a model that describes some (usually functional) aspects of the system. Model-based testing for complex software systems is still an evolving field. Slide 27 Well be concentrating on Keyword-Driven testing since it is a most beneficial framework for large-scale test automation. Slide 28 Advantages of Keyword-Driven Test automation This Framework addresses the most common problem with test automation: Automation Engineers do not have domain knowledge and the End Users (Subject Matter Experts/Test Engineers) usually do not have automation expertise. When properly implemented and maintained, it presents a superior ROI because each business event is designed, automated and maintained as a discrete entity. Keywords can then be used to design test cases, but the design and automation overhead for the keyword has already been paid. Slide 29 Advantages of Keyword-Driven Test automation Reduced the cost and time spent maintaining and updating tests The modular structure of keyword-driven testing means that new tests can easily be created from pre-existing modules The test team is capable of entirely automating tests, even without programming knowledge Can be easily modified to use with different test tool Reusability across different projects Slide 30 Classic Keyword-Driven Example ObjectActionData Textfield (username)Enter Text Slide 31 Recent Success with Keyword-Driven approach Estimate using Modular Framework: 1 year Estimate with Keyword-Driven Framework: 6 months Project was completed in 4 months by 1 person, 2 month ahead of schedule. This was the first project for the automation developer utilizing the Keyword-Driven Framework. 170 components were developed (1 component per Web page). 109 Regression Test cases were automated. Slide 32 Example of Test Data for Keyword-Driven test automation developed by Connected Testing Inc. for TestComplete and QTP Slide 33 Resources Everything you want to know about Test Automation by Brian Le Suer Managers Guide to GUI Test Automation by Yury Makedonov The ROI of Test Automation by Michael Kelly What is my ROI? by mVerify Corporation SQA Forums An Overview of Test Automation Frameworks by Nathaniel Ritmeyer The benefits of keyword-based software test automation by David W. Johnson Wikipedia Slide 34 Igor Gershovich Company: Connected Testing, Inc. E-Mail: igershovich@connectedtesting.comigershovich@connectedtesting.com Phone: 720-933-9395 Website: www.connectedtesting.comwww.connectedtesting.com