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  • 1.Teacher learning and collaboration18.11.2013 Niina Impi Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit

2. Teacher learning Teacher knowledge Teacher beliefs Teacher collaborationLearning and Educational Technology Research Unitniina.impio@oulu.fi 3. The challenge of 21st centuryTeaching for the knowledge society requires developing broad cognitive learning, collaborative processes, risk-taking, creativity, and innovation in schools and classroom. (Sahlberg, 2006)Photo: http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=401503909941531&set=a.340040226087900.80614.339992636092659&type=1&theaterLearning and Educational Technology Research Unitniina.impio@oulu.fi 4. Changes in teachers work There is ongoing pressure for developmental changes in education (e.g. educational innovations, technology-enhanced learning). There is a need for changes in knowledge, beliefs, emotions and teaching practices (Bakkenes,Vermunt & Wubbels, 2010). Educational innovations have failed too often because they did not recognize the need for teacher learning (c.f Fullan, 1982; Lieberman & Pointer Mace, 2008) These changes require continuous teacher professional development (e.g. Sahlberg & Boce, 2010).Learning and Educational Technology Research Unitniina.impio@oulu.fi 5. Challenge for teachers When there is need to change the pedagogy of the school, teachers are expected to adapt their way of teaching accordingly. Teachers have to Develop novel visions on learning and teaching be motivated to learn about the new pedagogy understand what the innovation is useful for develop skills to bring the innovation into practice Form a community of teachers who all will learn new things Teaching is very demanding, high-performance profession in which teachers must rapidly make many decisions in a highly complex and time-pressured conditions Running 21st teaching teachers should learn to be adaptive experts (e.g. Crawford, Schlager, Toyama, Riel & Vahey, 2005)Learning and Educational Technology Research Unitniina.impio@oulu.fi 6. In recent years, teacher learning has become an important topic in educational research.Learning and Educational Technology Research Unitniina.impio@oulu.fi 7. WRITE DOWN YOUR OWN THOUGHTS N. Impi What is teacher learning?Learning and Educational Technology Research Unitniina.impio@oulu.fi 8. Teachers expertise is based on (e.g Barab, Kling & Gray 2003; Tynjl, 2004)1) Theoretical knowledge knowledge of ones own teaching subject and pedagogical knowledge research-based teaching2) Practical and empirical knowledge teaching knowledge, target group evaluation, tacit knowledge3) Self-regulative knowledge (Pintrich, 2004) regulating ones own learning process: planning and activating, monitoring, control, and reflection4) Knowledge of collaborative working practices networking, collaborative learning, collaborative knowledge building5) Knowledge of technology(Koehler, M.L. & Mishra 2006; 2009)Learning and Educational Technology Research Unitniina.impio@oulu.fi 9. TPACK Framework (Koehler & Mishra 2009) This model describes how teachers understanding of educational technologies and PCK interact with one another to produce effective teaching with technologyhttp://tpack.org/ LET.OULU.FIniina.impio@oulu.fiLearning and Educational Technology Research Unit 10. Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) 1.Technology knowledge (TK) indicates teachers skills to use different technologies awareness of the different possibilities and constraints that technologies have knowing what kind of software there are, and for what purposes and how to use them in the context of learning2. Technological content knowledge (TCK) The knowledge about the manner in which technology knowledge (TK) and content knowledge (CK) are reciprocally related to each other understanding which technologies and software work with certain content 3. Technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) understanding how teaching and learning changes when introducing and using different technologies understanding the benefits and constrains of different technologies when using them in teachingLearning and Educational Technology Research Unitniina.impio@oulu.fi 11. TPACK is important when we consider software used in teaching. Software such as social software or office tools is rarely designed specifically for teaching. This leaves the teacher to decide and apply them in teaching based on his or her judgment on the benefits of different tools for learning. (Valtonen, 2011). 12. Teacher beliefs Teachers beliefs determine their teaching practices (Kagan, 1992; Pajares, 1992; Wilkins, 2008)Teachers behaviours do not change without changes in beliefs (Kagan, 1992; Kane et al., 2002; Pajares, 1992)Variety of teacher beliefs (Kim et al., 2013) Teacher expectation of learner success Self-efficacy in their own ability to teach Beliefs about the value of specific teaching strategies or materials Content specific beliefsTeacher beliefs change through conceptual change that requires them to critically recognize their own beliefs as well as to observe, evaluate, and alternative beliefs. (Kagan, 1992)These strategies can be done through collaboration among teachers (Chen, 2008).Learning and Educational Technology Research Unitniina.impio@oulu.fi 13. Teacher beliefs and technology integration (Kim et al., 2013) Technology challenge teachers beliefs in new ways of both seeing and doing things (Ertmer, 2005) Teachers beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning and beliefs about effective ways of teaching were related to their technology integration practices. (Kim et al., 2013) teacher beliefs should be considered in order to facilitate technology integrationLearning and Educational Technology Research Unitniina.impio@oulu.fi 14. Effectiviness of teacher beliefs (Kim et al., 2013) If teacher believes that the source of knowledge is authority, that teacher may not use a relatively open-ended approach that encourages students to explore a variety of sources and construct answers to a given problem or complete certain task. PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING, STUDENT -CENTERED LEARNINGIf teacher believes that working in collaboration brings about greater benefits than learning alone, that teacher would tend to include more group work than teachers who see little or no learning value in collaboration. COLLABORATIVE LEARNING, KNOWLEDGE BUILDINGIf teacher believes that the value of technology for student learning is high because an interactive whiteboard that allows her to promote active partIcipation of students. In contrast another teacher believes that the value of technology for student learning is high because an interactive whiteboard allows him to deliver content more efficiently by projecting online resources on the board. EDUCATIONAL USE OF TECHNOLOGYLearning and Educational Technology Research Unitniina.impio@oulu.fi 15. The interconnected model of teacher professional growth External domainThe change environmentPersonal domainExternal source of information or stimulusDomain of practiceKnowledge Beliefs AttitudesProfessional experimentationSalient outcomes Enactment (implement)Domain of consequenceReflection(Clarke & Hollingsworth, 2002) 16. DISCUSS WITH YOUR PEER N. Impi1) First, share your memos about teacher learning with your peer.LET.OULU.FI2) Then, discuss how teachers learn.niina.impio@oulu.fiLearning and Educational Technology Research Unit 17. Teacher Learning How teachers learn at work? learning by experimenting learning in interaction using external sources consciously thinking about ones own teaching practices (Kwakman 2003, Lohma & Woolf 2001, Van Eekelen et al. 2005)Learning and Educational Technology Research Unitniina.impio@oulu.fi 18. Towards teachers collaborative working practices Collaboration and its impact on pedagogical practices is important for teachers professional development. (Barab & Squire, 2002; Barab, Makinster & Scheckler, 2003; Meirink, Meijer & Verloop 2007; Goddard, Hoy & Woolfolk Hoy, 2004 Yuen, Law & Wong, 2003). It is even more important in various complex and daily situations We were lucky to experience possibilities of creative collaboration. Then, problems did not anymore feel like problems; rather they were possibilities. We we allowed to move on towards them, game-based manners, using tools and time as we chose were the best. (Edutool student)LET.OULU.FI21.11.13Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit 19. Towards teachers collaborative working practices a coordinated synchronous activity that is the result of continued attempt to construct and maintain a shared conception of a problem (Roschelle & Teasley, 1995)is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together (Dillenbourg, 1999)Unlike some my colleagues I posses understanding that collaboration does not happen just bringing people together. Succesfull collaboration requires hard work and commitment to joint aims. It requires --- free athmosphere and awareness of each members expertise and previous experiences. Collaboration requires flexibility: you need to be ready to change your perspective and construct new knowledge together. (Edutool student)LET.OULU.FI21.11.13Learning and Educational Technology Research Unit 20. Collaboration levels among teachers (Little, 1990; Rosenholtz, 1989) FIRST storytelling and scanning occurs in staff rooms or in hallways moment-by-moment exchanges SECOND aid and assistance critically look ones teaching practice THIRD sharing or exchaning instructional materials and ideas regularly sharing materials, methods an opinions allow teachers to make their daily teaching routines accessible to other teachers which promotes productive discussions of the curriculum FOURTH joint work or instructional problem-solving and planning teachers feel a collective responsibility for the work of teachingLearning and

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