teach yourself swedish

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Basic swedish

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'1'0 Richard, Karin, Michael and James Acknowledgements Theauthorwouldliketothanktheconsultants,IvoandIngworHolmqvistandGun Sjoberg,forchecking the materialandmakingmany valuablesuggestions,andalsomy brotherandhiswife,Claesand AgnetaGudmundson,forproviding mewith most of the realia forthe exercises.Iam very grateful toKungligaOperanforpermissiontousean operaticket,tothe Svenska Institutet forthephotographs onpage226,andtoVolvofor pictures of their cars. Iamalsoverymuchindebtedtomycolleague,BenteElsworth,forherhelpandgood advice;to Philip HolmesandIan Hinchcliffe,whosegrammatical works Ihaveused;and to Andrew Corrul1h,Karen Donnelly and David Hancock fortheillustrations. Lastly,I wouldliketothank my editors,HelenCoward,Kate Jarratt and Sarah Mitchell, for their patience and help. VeraCroghan, June 1995 For UK orders:please contact Bookpoint Ltd,39 Milton Park, Abingdon,OxonOX14 4TD. Telephone:(44) 01235400414, Fax:(44) 01235400454.Lines are open from9.00-6.00, Monday to Saturday, with a24hour message answering service.Email address: orderS@bookpoint.co.uk For U.S.A.&Canada orders:please contact NTC/Contemporary Publishing, 4255West Touhy Avenue, Lincolnwood,Illinois60646 - 1975 U.S.A.Telephone:(847)679 5500,Fax: (847) 679 2494. Long-renownedas the authoritative source forself-guided learning - with morethan 30 million copies sold worldwide - the TeachYourself series includes over 200 titles in the fieldsof languages, crafts, hobbies,sports, and other leisure activities. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Croghan, Vera Swedish I. Title 439.782421 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 95-68139 First published in UK 1995by Hodder Headline PIc,338 Euston Road,London NWl 3BH First published in US1995by NTC/Contemporary Publishing, 4255 West Touhy Avenue,Lincolnwood (Chicago),Illinois60646-1975 U.S.A. The 'Teach YourselC name and logoare registeredtrademarks of Hodder&Stoughton Ltd. Copyright 1995 VeraCroghan InUK:Allrights reserved. Nopart of this publicationmay be reproducedor transmitted in any formor byany means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy,recording,or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing fromthe publisher or under licence fromthe Copyright Licensing Agency Limited.Further details of such licences (for reprographic reproduction) may beobtained fromthe Copyright Licensing Agency Limited, of90 Tottenham Court Road,London W1P 9HE. InUS: Allrights reserved.No part of this bookmay bereproduced,stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted in any form,or by any means,electronic,mechanical, photocopying,or otherwise, without prior permission ofNTC/Contemporary Publishing Company. Typeset by Transet Limited, Coventry. Printed in Great Britain forHodder &Stoughton Educational, adivision of Hodder Headline PIc, 338 Euston Road, London NWl 3BH by Cox&Wyman Ltd, Reading, Berkshire. First published 1995 Impression number1413121110987 Year2004200320022001200019991998 CONTENTS Introduction1 Pronunciation3 1Passet, tack!Your passport, please!13 Formal and informal introductions and greetings. Addressing people and saying 'thank you'. Simple statements and questions. 2Tack lor maten!It was a lovely meal!28 Discussing where you live. Phrases used at meal times. Proposing a toast and expressing appreciation. Counting from 0 to 12. 3Hur dags stiger ni upp?What time do you get up?41 Telling the time, parts of the day and days of the week. Saying what you do during the day.Counting from13 to 100 and doing simple sums. 4Vill du fiilja med?Would you like to come?55 Discussing leisure activities and the weather. The seasons. 5Niir iippnar banken?Whendoes the bank open?68 Phrases used at a bank and about Swedish money. Counting from101 to 1 000 000 000 000. 6Hur mycket kostar det?Howmuch is it?82 Phrases used in shops. Accepting and declining offers in shops. 7Var Iigger kafeet?Where is the cafe?99 Asking for and giving directions. Apologising and responding toapologies. 8Far jag be om notan?May Ihave the bill, please?113 Ordering a meal in a restaurant. Stating likes and dislikes concerning foodand drink.Complaining about the food or the service. 9Har du kiirt i hiigertrnfik? Have you ever driven on theright?130 Asking for,granting or refusing permission. Enquiring about ability and offering advice. Roadsigns and cardinal points. 10Midsommar i DalarnaMidsummer in Dalecarlia145 Discussing where you come fromand what languages youspeak. Asking others to do things, offering assistance and telling others not to do something. 11Vart iir ni pa vag?Whereare you going?158 Making suggestions and accepting offers.Asking somebody to speak slowly.Expressing displeasure. 12Pa fjiiIlvandring i LapplandWalking in Lapland173 Asking forinformation and expressing preference. Stating requirements when booking railway tickets. The months of the year. 13Har ni nagot rum ledigt?Have you a roomvacant?189 Enquiring about hotel roomsand facilities.Booking a room. Asking forinformation about tourist attractions and events. Expressing satisfaction.Dates. 14Var har du varit?Wherehave you been?202 Saying that you like or dislike something. Making enquiries. Expressing disappointment. 15Vilken Jinje skajag ta?Whichline should I take?217 Using public transport and hiring a car.Expressing surprise and doubt. Talking about politics. 16Vad ar det fiir fel pa er?What'sthematter?233 Talking about illnesses and ailments.Medical advice. Persuading somebody to dosomething.Promising to do something. Expressing indifference. 17Har du lust att aka skidor?Would you like to go skiing?249 Making arrangements on the telephone.Phrases used in telegrams. 18God Jui!HappyChristmas!263 Writing letters. Accepting and declining invitations. Expressing gratitude. Key tothe exercises276 Someuseful verbs283 Swedish-English glossary287 Index to Grammar Notes307 INTRODUCTION This course isdesigned forthe absolute beginner and requires nopre-viousknowledgeof anyforeignlanguage.Theaimof the courseisto enable youtouseSwedish in everyday situationsandalsotoprovide some background information about Sweden and the Swedish culture. Swedish isnot a difficult language foran English-speaking student to learn.LikeEnglish,itisaGermaniclanguagesomanywordsare similar,forexample:man,bok,hus,hund,land,hand,finger. Manyloan-wordsfromGerman,FrenchandLatinarealsoimme-diatelyrecognisabletoanyonewithaknowledgeof theselanguages, forexampleGermanFrau,{ragen,Freiheit,Rathausbecomefru, fraga,frihet,radhusinSwedish.Frenchrestaurant,parapluie, sergent,milieubecomerestaurang,paraply,sergeant,miljiiin Swedish.From Latin there ismuseum, laboratorium, pastor, uni-versitet and so on. In these days of easy communications, TV programmes and films,and scienceand technologyusing an international (English!)terminology, moreandmoreAmericanandEnglishwordsareenteringthe Swedishlanguage,makingitincreasinglyaccessibletoEnglish-speaking people. - 1 SWEDISH How to use the book Each of the 18 units followsthe same pattern. Introduction.AnintroductioniuEuglishthatexplainswhatyou will learn in the unit. Samtal. (Dialogue.)IZlThereare somedialoguesat the beginning of eachchapter.Usingthecassette,listentothemfirsttoseehow much youunderstand, then read them Vocabulary. II Thevocabularysectionthat followseach dialogue containsthe newwordsand expressionsthat youwill needtounder-stand it. Riitt eller feI?(Trueor false?)Statementsabout the dialoguethat maybetrueorfalse.Theaimofthisexerciseisforyoutocheck whether you have understood the text. Vad ni behiiver veta.(What youneedtoknow.)Commentsonlife in Sweden relevant to the dialogue. S .. har siiger man. (What tosay.)The important words and expres-sions used in the dialogues are repeated here. Grammatik.(Languagepatterns.)gNotesexplaininggrammat-ical structures and how to create your own sentences. Ovningar. (Exercises.) In these youpractise the new words and information you have learnt. Fiirstardu?(Doyouunlkrstand?)Furtherdialoguesandtexts, testing your comprehension. In addition,the symboll!l indicates material includedonthe accom-panying cassette. The best way tomake progressis towork alittle every day.Listen to the cassette and read the dialogues several times,learning the vocab-ulary before you start the exercises. TeachYourself Swedishtellsthe story of John,ayoungEnglishman whoisgoingtostay inSwedenforayeartogainexperienceinthe import andexporttrade.Healsowantstosee something of Sweden. HisSwedishfriend,Ake,stayedwithJohn'sfamilyonan exchange, and now John is going to stay with Ake's family. - 2--PRONUNCIATION Swedishisprobablyoneoftheeasiestlanguagestolearntopro-nounce as it isusually pronounced as it is written. Once a fewgeneral ruleshave beenlearnt - and youhavemastered the specificSwedish sounds - it is quite straightforward. The easiest waytolearn thepronunciation is tolisten to the cassette andimitatethenativespeakersthere.TheSwedishradioand Swedishfilms- if theyhaven'tbeendubbed- arealsoveryhelpful. RadioSwedencanbefoundonshortwavearoundtheworldandin mostof Europeonseveralfrequencies,e.g.mediumwave(AM)1179 kHz 254 m,although reception is not always good. Themostimportant thingstorememberwhenpronouncingSwedish wordsisthatalllettersshouldbepronounceddistinctly,even unstressedendvowels,andvowelsandconsonantsinendings,e.g. pojke (boy),fiire (before),sedan (afterwards), triidet (the tree). The Swedish alphabet has 29 letters: II Aa(pronounceda)K k(pronouncedkft)Uu (pronouncedu) Bb("be)LI(ell)Vv(vel Cc(se)Mm("em)Ww(vel D d(de)Nn("en)Xx (eks) Ee(e)o 0("0)Yy (y) Ff(emPp("pelZz(sata) G g(gelQ q(" ku)A {!(a) Hh(hA)Rr("arr)A ii(ii) Ii(i)Ss("ess)06 (6) Jj(ji)Tt("tel - 3-, ~ t I!I SWEDISH Thelast threelettersarevowels;thismeansthat Swedishhasnine vowels, as yis always a vowel in Swedish. The vowelsarea,e, i, 0, U, y, A,ii, O. ThevowelsinSwedisharepuresounds,notacombinationoftwo sounds(diphthongs)astheyoftenareinEnglish.Diphthongsonly occur in dialects. Thepronunciationof Swedishlettersisexplainedbelow.Howev