targeting high-risk groups of drivers adolescent drivers and elderly drivers

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  • Targeting high-risk groups of driversAdolescent drivers and elderly drivers

  • Drivers killed/injured pr. million km drivenBjrnskau, 2004

    Fig 3.1

    0.61311522250.36252565110.27097079720.1613259669

    0.56316443460.33125828220.25140990480.1568615366

    0.5718750.34036954920.25968957870.1593495935

    0.48993085040.30460624070.22644312990.1320474361

    0.54864189110.3543357540.25776911580.118005126

    0.51564386870.33663808970.24704149790.1141324357

    0.44186292670.29125518090.21360589470.1118047383

    0.41813628860.27607920690.20421014290.0941947907

    0.42792768910.28394446050.21186907790.0887162393

    0.41532216630.28357857260.2116300990.1049903126

    0.40667325750.28418500270.2122165760.1055021023

    0.39859517680.2884769740.21350456510.1020868867

    0.38668677290.27155153390.19807989410.0887221364

    0.36103321620.25640603450.18813674440.0930289995

    0.3130046190.22742210080.16500376130.0787900384

    0.30181079080.22021983140.15860100210.0734066105

    0.3087155630.22794216480.16309836980.0731580868

    0.31709601870.23418692020.16869201870.0636356666

    0.31355472840.23238525560.16754523160.0623684566

    0.30563050910.22522418730.16312383590.0624075888

    0.306019830.22320652790.16323523860.0530769521

    0.29215904350.21450364640.15638487870.0526492038

    0.29605601890.2233642610.15973109620.0564846195

    0.29010938170.21834992890.1560988620.045341394

    0.28414432520.21240519190.15353220410.0530750232

    0.27948038840.21278918990.15123182970.0600559612

    0.26108543590.1987464310.14125458260.0513591593

    0.2591421290.19988010190.14054720150.056785066

    0.24730763460.1925506390.13455857150.0448855012

    0.25410695560.20308503840.13945012790.0495524297

    Ulykker per mill kjretykm

    Skadde og drepte per mill personkm

    Ulykker per mill personkm

    Drepte per mrd personkm

    Fig 3.2

    2.1242431414.22642612924.196351374

    2.19191136653.23569917613.751826757

    1.74070195133.2193074662.5830935321

    1.58265509612.46493810422.2803804758

    1.85255768191.89046599492.249051281

    1.86137164231.93216482782.1335010875

    1.74779258351.97120090861.751752365

    1.45341666781.55574324451.6864792884

    1.46991900111.49455638261.8109003097

    1.45298039411.24735917431.5920843678

    1.45038392781.23993900811.7569100973

    1.37618689370.91256326511.6985663524

    1.30303046230.97902200361.5806717982

    1.22019320731.47501769431.3312837833

    1.09296306661.59230567331.203989735

    1.06192366511.71186026680.9932683963

    1.05201491711.32833731660.9206059985

    1.30800526361.37988466310.9118122818

    Moped

    Lett Mc

    Tung Mc

    Figur 3.3

    0.2466686630.2381233984

    0.21882437790.2116613934

    0.22821155280.2231885872

    0.20340788070.2104725262

    0.2510832650.2377520776

    0.23618175650.2261633011

    0.20185084380.1987910584

    0.17638380420.1834048305

    0.18092803130.1854205383

    0.17495910940.1916594374

    0.17740216230.1953169258

    0.18685121110.2121792417

    0.19381352190.1900210084

    0.18676554020.1762101084

    0.17113267110.1671245193

    0.17645500640.1616819228

    0.17909781150.165975913

    0.18967870450.1684091133

    0.18741445010.1757883109

    0.18957834650.166766857

    0.18812275810.1577623206

    0.18439010520.151427308

    0.18961038960.1663165266

    0.18789927330.1621105863

    0.18608048880.1573579407

    0.18677231570.1618038396

    0.1757515480.153389551

    0.18172630520.149710659

    0.17894866880.1443327365

    0.18558866780.1539891206

    Bilfrere

    Bilpassasjerer

    Figur 4.1

    0.190.190.190.18

    0.190.170.160.14

    0.640.790.680.63

    1.431.221.231.08

    2.121.451.221.31

    4.231.561.481.38

    4.21.691.330.91

    1985

    1992

    1998

    2001

    Figur 4.2

    0.0060.0050.0050.004

    0.0050.0040.0030.003

    0.0280.0490.0330.034

    0.0360.030.0610.012

    0.0560.0230.0270.015

    0.0980.0260.0190.036

    0.2060.0560.0690.038

    1985

    1992

    1998

    2001

    Fig 5.1

    0.85194467760.8955130475

    0.5687981560.4357040426

    0.17845561690.1948042027

    0.11501643740.1937324539

    0.09786280.1507373974

    0.08920751480.2099892153

    0.12987862670.2713929392

    0.50858507590.4577314549

    &A

    Page &P

    Menn 2001

    Kvinner 2001

    Fig 5.2

    1.62906352971.4539558189

    1.01500198480.6161377

    0.36840012630.3148070403

    0.24826296470.3230783376

    0.22428143650.2442450288

    0.21289420020.3199696083

    0.28336060460.4130671533

    0.96851993660.8604887918

    Menn

    Kvinner

    Fig 6.1

    0-120-120.1847833182

    0.470.570.3361530059

    0.660.870.6280829762

    0.240.350.3071938491

    0.160.370.2116268068

    0.150.310.1561022049

    0.270.460.1725691705

    0.320.280.194973842

    0.40.410.2193083302

    1992

    1998

    2001

    Figur 6.4

    1.19475074761.1823334059

    0.7340960881.7431335494

    0.74260361211.0429623992

    1.6462568231.0558927258

    0.97196706990.6279789187

    0.6732499851.3964949109

    2.73472478450.9491433763

    1.43744878122.6252417434

    Menn

    Kvinner

    Figur 6.5

    1.411.491.1793614226

    1.20.851.0170726958

    0.991.720.8235251191

    0.911.081.3907884375

    1.31.230.8330837889

    1.140.770.9876486148

    1.962.81.9256607916

    2.392.021.9464786071

    1992

    1998

    2001

    Fig 7.1

    2.17292589890.7858247491.09499615741.2278864885

    1.37046790460.52051213410.90213420740.9049329815

    1.73639504430.63129370790.99493201250.9047182037

    2.18429645860.59862797571.03533923860.865739797

    1.77897714550.65766699091.00497659691.2583245865

    9.70433104210.48175000561.00415069941.3884602397

    11.42917307270.43528743760.69805691811.0816370891

    &A

    &C&F&R&D

    00-06

    06-12

    12-18

    18-24

    Fig 7.2

    1.29088513241.22425109741.37043594350.8394404065

    1.11151014641.08890681291.17164167650.7105655461

    0.89139491771.21339201791.35844548020.7635357921

    1.03898448240.95312790091.2854499620.6874134454

    0.72450094391.14045476341.30230744110.7053272804

    2.00052314680.82555583090.99712425110.7381296065

    1.83983523860.37680815290.55992668730.5777400583

    &A

    &C&F&R&D

    00-06

    06-12

    12-18

    18-24

    Fig 8.1

    0.4310.284569565

    0.2460.1974475503

    0.1890.1675951872

    0.1670.1089160219

    0.0830.0649911406

    Ulykkesrisiko riksveinettet - alle ulykker og DT 1993-2000

    Ulykkesrisiko p riks- og fylkesveinettet - personbiler og RVU 2001

    Figur 9.1

    0.23149483640.29

    0.11679556050.21

    0.14064538920.4

    0.13152815360.28

    0.08785696970.28

    0.1032201310.23

    0.15051803520.28

    0.20032534250.35

    0.19321424160.3

    0.14220173150.35

    0.15689539670.3

    0.15388568910.34

    0.11717850430.29

    0.17552075730.33

    0.07274589690.28

    0.07182750980.22

    0.08510655460.33

    0.13256792480.33

    0.05049256450.27

    &A

    Page &P

    Skaderisiko for frer og passasjerer i personbil

    Ulykkesrisiko alle trafikanter fra TS-hndboka

  • Proportion of drivers 65 year of age and older with a driver license 1980-2002 (Norway)

  • Characteristics of accidents with older driversOverrrepresented in junction accidents, especially when turning left (in countries with right-side driving). Higher accident risk in roundaboutsOverrepresented in wrong-way driving accidentsElderly have problems reading signs on distance, especially at nighttime and under glare conditionsSigns often have too short sight distance to have enough time to perceive and react

  • Characteristics of older drivers age related changes:Visual and auditory functions impaired

    Cognitive ability can be impaired e.g. reduced perception, attention and information processing

    Physical ability reduced (stiffer neck, torso, reduced muscle power)

    More health problems and more use of medication

    However large in-group variation an older driver is not necessary a bad driver

  • On the other hand, elderly drivers:

    are usually very safety oriented (few violations)have a defensive driving styletend to compensate for their impairments by:avoiding heavy trafficdriving at night-time/eveningavoiding driving on slippery roads and during difficult weather conditionsusing passengers as co-pilots

    Many elderly drivers may therefore be the safest driversReason to believe that certain subgroups of elderly drivers accounts for the increase in risk

  • Weak association between visual acuity (synsskarphet) and accident riskDue to compensation? Reduced visual acuity under glare conditions associated with a poor driving performance (indikasjon p gr str/cataract)

    Defects in the central field of view also associated with poor driving performance

    Neither of these two tests are included in the medical test older drivers have to pass todayUlleberg og Sagberg, 2003Subgroups with functional impairments -vision

  • Reduced acuity under glare conditions

  • Defects in the central field of vision may impair perceptionModerate defectSevere defect (extreme example)

  • Amsler grid indication of defects in the central field of view

    Focus on the dot in the middle

    Breaks/waves in the grid indicate defects in the central field og vision

  • Attention and accident risk are relatedUFOV (useful field of view)Slow information processing Impaired divided and selective attentionLow capacity of using information in the periph