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SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC. CEREN ERGÜN HACETTEPE UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. SYRIA. General Informations. Formal Name: Syrian Arab Republic (Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah). Term for Citizen(s): Syrian(s). Capital: Damascus - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC CEREN ERGN HACETTEPE UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

  • SYRIA

  • General InformationsFormal Name: Syrian Arab Republic (Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah).

    Term for Citizen(s): Syrian(s).

    Capital: Damascus

    Languages: Arabic is the official language and mother tongue of about 90 percent of the population. Minority languages include Kurdish, Armenian,Turkish.

  • Population Ethnically,some of 90% of the population is Arab.%10 belongs to Kurdish Armenian and Turkmens.

  • EconomySyria is middle- income country.Economy based on agriculture,oil industry and tourism.Syria has some economical problemsA large and poorly performing public sectorDeclining rates of oil productionWidening non-oil deficitWeak financial and capital marketsHigh unemployement and poulation growth ratesSyria withdrew from GATT in 1951 because of Israels accessionSyria is not member of WTO,however is developing regional free trade agreements (GAFTA)-Greater Arab Free Trade AreaSyria signed free trade agreement with Turkey in 2007.

  • A Taste Of FreedomSyria fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1516 and remained a part of their Ottoman Empire for four centuries.

    In 1916, the Arabs took the opportunity of World War I to revolt against the Turkish rule.

    The alliances promised the sovereign Arab states and supported seperatist actions against the Ottoman Empire.

  • T. E. Lawrence, was a British Army officer led the Arabs in many of important battles.He brought to the Arabs in their fight against The Turks was British money and arms.His tactics of guerrila warfare that enabled the Arabs to confuse the Turkish-German forces

  • In 1916, Sharif Hussein ibn Ali of Mecca to begin a revolt. He gave the leadership of this revolt to two of his sons: Faisal and Abdullah with Lawrence supports.

    In 1918,English attacks and Arab revolts into the Palestine did not been stopped by Ottoman forces and Englishs occupied at the Damascus.

    After the occupation, Syria was declared an independent kingdom under King Faisal I, son of Sharif Hussein.

  • King Faisal I attended the Versailles Peace Conferance to benefit from the right of self- determination.The greatest powers did not accept the self determination rights of Syria.Faisal declared the independent and the soverign Syria.The brief period of Syrian self-government,when Faisal was king,had given nationalist in the country a taste of freedom since French mandate.

  • Sykes- Picot Agreement

  • French Mandate In 1920, French troops landed on the Syrian coast, threatening to occupy the country.

    The Syrians decided to resist. However,at the town of Maysaloon, the ill-equipped Syrian army was defeated.

    Defense Minister Youssef al Azmeh was killed in the battle, which marked the beginning of 26 Years of French mandate over Syria.

  • French MandateFrance ruled Syria with iron hand.

    Every feature of Syrian life came under French control.

    France became the currency of the economy and the currency of the management was in the hands of French bankers.

    These factors caused the Arab nationalist movement in Syria which led by educated,wealthy Muslims againist the French.

  • France set out to weaken the nationalist movement by diving the country into seperate regions and giving support to religious minorities.

  • Liberation Movements

    Nationalists founded the People Party, which demanded French recognition of eventual Syrian independence.

    Violance broke out in seperate uprising by Alawis(Alevi),Druzes(Drzi),Bedouins(Bedevi) to arrive liberation.

    Their revolts against French quickly spread throughout the country.

    French ended these revolts by sistematic bombardment of Damascus,killing about 5,000 Syrians.

  • Liberation MovementsIn 1928,The French allowed the formation of the National Blok to write a constitution.However,the French put into effect this constitution after deleting all references to independence.Syrian nationalist wanted a treaty with France.Under Leon Blums liberal socialist government negotiated the Syrian-French Treaty of Alliance.With French approval,the first Syrian nationalist govenment came to power 1936,with Hashim al Atassi at Nationalist Blok.

  • Liberation MovementsIn 1939,France agreed to hand over to Turkey the Province of Alexandra,later Hatay.Many Syrians blammed the Attasi govenment for the loss,and Attasi resigned.Parlementary institutions were abolished,France again governed the unruly country through a Council Of Directors.Hitlers Germany was to change everthing.The Germans quickly conquered France in 1940 at the World War II and set up the Vichy government.

  • Liberation MovementsFree French under De Gaulle government promised eventual independence for Syria.However,French mandate in effect even under the Free French.With National Blok,Syrian elected a new parliament in 1943 and began taking over govenmental functions.The French retained control of social,cultural and educational services,as well as peace-keeping force(Levants)But 1944 the Soviet Union and after the United States recognized as sovereign state.These nations began pressuring France.

  • LBERATIONSyria became member of the United Nations and the Arab League. In the picture, Arab leaders confer in Bloudan(1945)17 April 1946 the last French troop leaves Syria. The day will be celebrated as the National Day.

  • 1948 ARAB-ISRAIL CONFLCTIn 1948, the Syrian army was sent to Palestine to fight along with other Arab armies against the newly created State of Israel.

    The Arabs lost the war, and Israel occupied 78 percent of the area of historical Palestine.

    In July 1949, Syria was the last Arab country to sign an armistice agreement with Israel.

    It was only the beginning of the Arab-Israeli conflict.

  • Shukri al-QuwwatliHusni ZaimSami HinnawiAdib ShishakliMilitary Coups Period

  • The Baath Party "Unity, Liberty, Socialism"The national government faced instability, this time coming from abroad.In the mid 1950s, Syria's relation with the West witnessed some tension with the improving Syrian-Soviet relations.The Ba'ath, now a large and popular organisation, gained representation in the parliamentary elections in 1954.Baath was a secularist political party with strong socialist and Arab nationalist interests, opposed to what it sees as "Western imperialism.Baath called for the "renaissance" or "resurrection" of the Arab World and its unity in one united state.The Baath Party drafted a bill in 1958 calling for union with Egypt.

  • The Arabs Unite1 February 1958: Egyptian President Gamal Abdel-Nasser and Syrian President Shukri al-Quwatli sign the union treaty. Syria and Egypt become united under the United Arab Republic (UAR).

  • The Arabs UniteThe western threat was also one of the reasons that helped achieve Syria's union with Egypt under the United Arab Republic (UAR).In February 1958, Egyptian Gamal Abdel Nasser was president. Nasser's condition to accept union with Syria was dissolving all Syrian political parties. Syria realized it had become a virtual colony of Egypt and many wanted out of the UAR.On September 28, 1961, with a bloodless military coup in Damascus,Syria went back to independence.

  • Salah Jadid RuleIn 8 March 1963, the Baath Arab Socialist Party came to power in a coup known in Syria as the March Revolution.

    In February 1966, the right wing of Baath assumed leadership of the party, establishing radical Salah Jadid as the strongman of the country.

    Under Jadid's rule, Syria aligned itself with the Soviet bloc.

  • The Six-Day War

    1967 Arab-Israeli War was fought between June 5 and June 10, 1967, by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt Jordan, and Syria.

  • After the Six-Day War on SyriaThe dramatic defeat in Six-Day War discredited the radical socialist regimes Baathist Syria.The defeat strengthed the hands of the moderates and rightists in the Baath Party and Defense Minister Hafez al Assads power.The first meeting of Arab states after Six-Day War producede the famous three nos at 1967

    No peace with IsraelNo recognition of IsraelNo negotiations with Israel concerning any Palestinian territory

  • Resolution 242Unite Nations claimed itself in the Middle East with Security Council Resolution 242. According to Resolution 242:

    It called for Israel to withdraw its armed forces from territories occupied in recent conflict

    It called on the Arabs to end their belligerence and recognize Israels right to live peacefulluy within secure and recognize boundaries.

  • Black SeptemberConflict of Jordan and Palestine Liberation OrganizationSyria was highly critical of Jordan and Lebanon for their efforts to control Palestinian guerrillas in their territories.When Hashemite King Hussein of Jordan moved to press the militancy of Palestinian organizations in Jordan and restore his monarchy's rule over the country.Syria tried to intervene on behalf of the Palestinian guerrillas.Syria sent tanks to aid the PLO forces.Syrian tanks came under heavy fire by Jordanian troops and war planes and forced to withdraw.

  • Correction MovementThe failure of the Syrian intervention caused the domestic political disagreements within Baath leadership.The Jadid faction wanted the full support of the PLO in JordanHowever the Assad faction opposed such action.Assad refused to sent his air force to support tanks in Jordon,because he feared a destroyer Israel attack.At 1970,Jadid was out.The new national government was to be organized under new Baatist leadership,Assad Leadership.

  • Correction MovementAssad claimed the change in

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