synthese basics - lionel guillot mon blog 2008-09-23آ  16.10 jit, tqm and mrp ii _____ 152 17...

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  • SYNTHESE POUR LE

    BASICS

    Extrait de INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALS MANAGEMENT (5e édition) de J.R. TONY ARNOLD et STEPHEN N. CHAPMAN

    MANAGER EN LOGISTIQUE ET GESTION DE PRODUCTION PROMOTION 2003 – 2004 GUILLOT LIONEL

  • SYNTHESE BASICS GUILLOT Lionel - ISERPA MLI 09/09/05

    2

    CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ______________________________________ 6

    1.1 INTRODUCTION _______________________________________________________________ 6 1.2 OPERATING ENVIRONMENT ___________________________________________________ 6 1.3 THE SUPPLY CHAIN CONCEPT _________________________________________________ 7 1.4 MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ___________________________________________________ 8 1.5 SUPPLY CHAIN METRICS _____________________________________________________ 10

    2 PRODUCTION PLANNING SYSTEM___________________________________________________ 10 2.1 INTRODUCTION ______________________________________________________________ 10 2.2 MANUFACTURING PLANNING AND CONTROL SYSTEM_________________________ 11 2.3 SALES AND OPERATIONS PLANNING (SOP)_____________________________________ 13 2.4 MANUFACTURING RESOURCE PLANNING (MRP II) _____________________________ 14 2.5 ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP) _____________________________________ 14 2.6 MAKING THE PRODUCTION PLAN_____________________________________________ 15

    3 MASTER SCHEDULING _____________________________________________________________ 18 3.1 INTRODUCTION ______________________________________________________________ 18 3.2 RELATIONSHIP TO PRODUCTION PLAN _______________________________________ 19 3.3 DEVELOPING A MASTER PRODUCTION SCHEDULE ____________________________ 19 3.4 PRODUCTION PLANNING, MASTER SCHEDULING AND SALES __________________ 21

    4 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PLANNING _____________________________________________ 23 4.1 INTRODUCTION ______________________________________________________________ 23 4.2 BILLS OF MATERIAL _________________________________________________________ 25 4.3 MATERIAL REQUIREMENT PLANNING PROCESS_______________________________ 27 4.4 USING THE MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PLANNING____________________________ 31

    5 CAPACITY MANAGEMENT __________________________________________________________ 33 5.1 INTRODUCTION ______________________________________________________________ 33 5.2 DEFINITION OF CAPACITY ____________________________________________________ 33 5.3 CAPACITY PLANNING ________________________________________________________ 34 5.4 CAPACITY REQUIREMENTS PLANNING (CRP)__________________________________ 35 5.5 CAPACITY AVAILABLE _______________________________________________________ 36 5.6 CAPACITY REQUIRED (LOAD) _________________________________________________ 37 5.7 SCHEDULING ORDERS ________________________________________________________ 38 5.8 MAKING THE PLAN ___________________________________________________________ 39

    6 PRODUCTION ACTIVITY CONTROL __________________________________________________ 39 6.1 INTRODUCTION ______________________________________________________________ 39 6.2 DATA REQUIREMENTS________________________________________________________ 41 6.3 ORDER PREPARATION ________________________________________________________ 43 6.4 SCHEDULING_________________________________________________________________ 43

  • SYNTHESE BASICS GUILLOT Lionel - ISERPA MLI 09/09/05

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    6.5 LOAD LEVELING _____________________________________________________________ 45 6.6 SCHEDULING BOTTLENECKS _________________________________________________ 45 6.7 THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS (TOC) AND DRUM-BUFFER-ROPE ___________________ 47 6.8 IMPLEMENTATION ___________________________________________________________ 48 6.9 CONTROL ____________________________________________________________________ 48 6.10 PRODUCTION REPORTING ____________________________________________________ 50

    7 PURCHASING______________________________________________________________________ 51 7.1 INTRODUCTION ______________________________________________________________ 51 7.2 ESTABLISHING SPECIFICATIONS______________________________________________ 53 7.3 FUNCTIONAL SPECIFICATION DESCRIPTION __________________________________ 54 7.4 SELECTING SUPPLIERS _______________________________________________________ 56 7.5 PRICE DETERMINATION ______________________________________________________ 57 7.6 IMPACT OF MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PLANNING ON PURCHASING __________ 59

    7.7 SOME ORGANIZATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT ___ 60

    8 FORECASTING ____________________________________________________________________ 61 8.1 INTRODUCTION ______________________________________________________________ 61 8.2 DEMAND MANAGEMENT______________________________________________________ 61 8.3 DEMAND FORECASTING ______________________________________________________ 62 8.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF DEMAND ______________________________________________ 62 8.5 PRINCIPLES OF FORECASTING________________________________________________ 63 8.6 COLLECTION AND PREPARATION OF DATA ___________________________________ 63 8.7 FORECASTING TECHNIQUES__________________________________________________ 63 8.8 SOME IMPORTANT INTRINSIC TECHNIQUES___________________________________ 64 8.9 SEASONALITY ________________________________________________________________ 65 8.10 TRACKING THE FORECAST ___________________________________________________ 65

    9 INVENTORY FUNDAMENTALS ______________________________________________________ 68 9.1 INTRODUCTION ______________________________________________________________ 68 9.2 AGGREGATE INVENTORY MANAGEMENT _____________________________________ 68 9.3 ITEM INVENTORY MANAGEMENT_____________________________________________ 68 9.4 INVENTORY AND THE FLOW OF MATERIAL ___________________________________ 69 9.5 SUPPLY AND DEMAND PATTERNS _____________________________________________ 69 9.6 FUNCTIONS OF INVENTORIES_________________________________________________ 69 9.7 OBJECTIVES OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT __________________________________ 70 9.8 INVENTORY COSTS ___________________________________________________________ 72 9.9 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND INVENTORY ___________________________________ 73 9.10 ABC INVENTORY CONTROL___________________________________________________ 76

    10 ORDER QUANTITIES _____________________________________________________________ 77 10.1 INTRODUCTION ______________________________________________________________ 77 10.2 ECONOMIC-ORDER QUANTITY (EOQ) _________________________________________ 78 10.3 VARIATIONS OF THE EOQ MODEL ____________________________________________ 80

  • SYNTHESE BASICS GUILLOT Lionel - ISERPA MLI 09/09/05

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    10.4 QUANTITY DISCOUNTS _______________________________________________________ 81 10.5 USE OF EOQ WHEN COSTS ARE NOT KNOWN __________________________________ 81 10.6 PERIOD-ORDER QUANTITY (POQ) _____________________________________________ 82

    11 INDEPENDENT DEMAND ORDERING SYSTEMS _____________________________________ 82 11.1 INTRODUCTION ______________________________________________________________ 82 11.2 ORDER POINT SYSTEM _______________________________________________________ 83 11.3 DETERMINING SAFETY STOCK________________________________________________ 84 11.4 DETERMINING SERVICE LEVELS______________________________________________ 86 11.5 DIFFERENT FORECAST AND LEAD-TIME INTERVALS __________________________ 86 11.6 DETERMINING WHEN THE ORDER POINT IS REACHED_________________________ 87 11.7 PERIODIC REVIEW SYSTEM___________________________________________________ 88 11.8 DISTRIBUTION INVENTORY___________________________________________________ 89

    12 PHYSICAL INVENTORY AND WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT___________________________ 90 12.1 INTRODUCTION ______________________________________________________________ 90 12.2 WAREHOUSING MANAGEMENT _______________________________________________ 91 12.3 PHYSICAL CONTROL AND SECURITY__________________________________________ 95 12.4 INVENTORY RECORD ACCURACY _____________________________________________ 95

    13 PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION ________________________________________________________ 99 13.1 INTRODUCTION ______________________________________________________________ 99 13.2 PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ___________________________________________ 100 13.3 INTERFACES ________________________________________________________________ 101 13.4 TRANSPORTATION __________________________________________________________ 102 13.5 LEGAL TYPES OF CARRIAGE_________________________________________________ 104 13.6 TRANSPORTATION COST ELEMENTS _________________________________________ 105 13.7 WAREHOUSING _____________________________________________________________ 107 13.8 PACKAGING_________________________________________________________________ 110 13.9 MATERIALS HANDLING______________________________________________________ 110 13.10 MULTI-WAREHOUSE SYSTEMS_______________________________________________ 111

    14 PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES _____________________________________________________ 113 14.1 INTRODUCTION _____________________________________________________________ 113 14.2 NEED FOR NEW PRODUCTS __________________________________________________ 113 14.3 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES_______________________________________ 114 14.4 PRODUCT SPECIFICATION AND DESIGN ______________________________________ 116 14.5 PROCESS DESIGN____________________________________________________________ 117 14.6 FACTORS INFLUENCING PROCESS DESIGN ___________________________________ 117 14.7 PROCESSING EQUIPMENT ___________________________________