Sustainable Management and Carbon Sequestration in Soils of Africa

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PowerPoint PresentationSustainable Management and Carbon Sequestration in Soils of AfricaDr. Rattan LalCarbon Management and Sequestration CenterThe Ohio State UniversityMarrakesh, MoroccoNovember 2016#Carbon Management and Sequestration Center1SOC and Soil HealthSoil Organic Carbon PhysicalI. Water Increase retention Decreases drought Reduces runoff and erosion Decreases infiltration Improves filtrationII. Structure Increases aggregation Improves aeration Reduces crusting and compaction Improves tilth ChemicalI. Soil Fertility Reservoir of plant nutrients Increases N, P, SII. CEC Increases buffering Decreases leaching Increases surface area BiologicalI. Biodiversity Improves soil biota Increases cycling Provides energyII. Activity Increase MBC Increases biopores EcologicalI. Elemental Cycling Improves cycling (N, P, S) Increase physio-chemical activity Increases use efficiency of N, P, S, H2OII. Productivity Increases productivity Improves produce quality Enhances stabilityPhysico-chemicalEco-biologicalBiochemicalEco-physicalLal (2016)#Carbon Management and Sequestration CenterThreshold/Critical LevelThreshold/Critical Level/Tipping Point: Soil processes and properties have threshold levels .Beyond threshold level, there is a drastic regime change . What is the threshold level of SOC in the root zone and profile for major soils of Africa for principal land uses?#Carbon Management and Sequestration CenterCrop Yield Increase With Increase in SOC by 1Mg C/haCropYield Increase (kg/ha/Mg C)Sorghum 80 - 140Maize100 - 300Soybean20 - 50Wheat20 - 70Rice10 - 50Millet30 - 70Beans30 - 60Lal, 2005#Carbon Management and Sequestration CenterSoil Erosion as a Carbon SourceWorld 1.1 Pg C/yUSA.. 15 Tg C/yBrazil 60 Tg C/yIndia.. 4.8 - 7.2 Tg C/yIceland. 0.01-0.02 Tg C/y (60-250 Tg C/1000 yr)Emission Avoidance by Conservation-Effective Measures#Carbon Management and Sequestration CenterGlobal Potential of SOC Sequestration(Pg C/yr)Cropland: 0.4-1.2Grazing land: 0.3-0.5Salt-affected soils:0.3-0.7Desertified soils:0.2-0.7 Total:1.2-3.1Lal (2010)#Carbon Management and Sequestration CenterCreating Positive C BudgetSoil Carbon SequestrationSoil Carbon DepletionLossesBiocharCompostCover CropsRoot BiomassCrop ResiduesGainsErosionLeachingDecompositionResidueCompostRoot BiomassErosionLeachingDecompositionLossesGains#Carbon Management and Sequestration CenterTechnological Options for Soil Carbon SequestrationConservation AgricultureNo tillResidue mulchIntegrated nutrient management Cover croppingRestoration of Degraded LandsEroded landscapes Salinized landsMined landsDepleted landsUse of Organic AmendmentsCompostManureBiocharVermicultureComplex Farming Systems by Integration of Cropping with:LivestockTreesUrban EcosystemsBiofuel PlantationsTechnological Options to Create a Positive Soil C BudgetOrganic AgricultureAgroforestryFarmscapingEcological Restoration#Carbon Management and Sequestration CenterSoil microaggregate formation (