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  • Paving the Way for Sustainable Freight Transport

    Qatar National Convention Centre / Auditorium 3

    Doha, 25 April 2012 - 15.0018.00

    Sustainable Freight Transport:

    Improving the environmental sustainability of transport and

    logistics

    Professor Alan MCKINNON

    Khne Logistics University

    Hamburg

  • Sustainable Freight Transport:

    Improving the environmental sustainability of transport and logistics

    Professor Alan McKinnon

    Khne Logistics University

    Hamburg

    UNCTAD 13

    Paving the Way for Sustainable Freight Transport

    Doha

    25th April 2012

  • Economic

    objectives

    Environmental

    objectives

    Social

    objectives

    Sustainable

    Logistics

  • Tightening Emission Standards

    Part

    icula

    tes (

    g / k

    Wh)

    NOx (g/kWh)

    LOCAL

    Health & air quality

    REGIONAL

    Acidification

    photochemical

    GLOBAL

    Greenhouse -indirect

    Greenhouse - direct

    Effect PM HM NH3 SO2 NOx NMVOC CO CH4 CO2 N2O

    EU India

    (cities) India

    (nationwide)

    Euro 1 1993 2000 2000

    Euro 2 1996 2003 2005

    Euro 3 2000 2005 2010

    Euro 4 2005 2010

    Emission standard time-lag

  • Average Fuel Efficiency of New European Trucks (38 - 40t GVW) litres / 100 km

    tightening Euro - emission standard

    Source Lastautomnibus Test report 1966 - 2005, (all Brands) quoted in Mercedes presentation (2011)

    Test reports of new truck fuel efficiency 1966 - 2010

    Steep reductions in fuel consumption and emissions per tonne-km

    Growth of total tonne-kms counteracting this trend

  • Forecast Growth of Freight Transport Activity by Region 2000-2050

    Source: World Business Council for Sustainable Development - Mobility 2030 report

  • Limited Evidence of Freight Traffic / GDP Decoupling

    Ratio of Tonne-kms to GDP In

    de

    x (

    20

    00

    = 1

    00

    )

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    EU27

    UK

    Spain

    China

    Sources: Eurostat and Chinese government

    Objective is not to decouple freight volumes from GDP but rather

    to decouple freight-related externalities from GDP

    Minimising distances freight is moved will not necessarily

    minimise environmental impacts on a full life cycle basis

  • Projected Growth of Inland Freight Movement (billion tonne-km)

    Source: EU Transvisions project (2009)

    (McKinsey, 2010)

    India

    EU

    +160%

    +166% 13 years

    43 years

  • Improvements to transport

    infrastructure mainly road

    Centralisation

    Increased length of haul

    Increased freight transport intensity

    Change in commodity mix

    Industrialisation

    Lower density / higher value products

    Consolidate loads in

    larger / heavier vehicles

    Stronger just-in-time

    pressures

    Poorer utilisation of

    vehicle capacity

    Decline in rail

    freight

    New industrial /

    warehousing

    development not

    rail-connected

    Enhance inter-modal

    capabilities

    Economic development

    Wider sourcing

    New patterns of

    consumption

    Growth in output

    Much more freight being moved By less green mode

    Higher externalities per unit of freight moved Greater environmental

    degradation

    Improve fuel

    efficiency

    Improvements to transport infrastructure

    In less full vehicles

  • Weight of goods produced / consumed

    Total tonnes- lifted

    Tonne-kilometres

    Road tonne-kms

    Total vehicle-kms

    energy-related externalities

    Energy consumption

    other noxious gases greenhouse gases other non-energy-related externalities

    average handling factor

    average length of haul

    average load on laden trips

    average % empty running

    energy efficiency

    noise, vibration, accidents, visual intrusion

    emissions per unit of energy

    other externalities per vehicle km

    environmental impact of freight transport

    modal split Similar analyses for other modes

    outputs key ratios outputs key ratios

    output key parameter

    modal split

    supply chain structure

    emission intensity

    energy efficiency

    vehicle utilisation

    Sustainable Freight Transport Framework

    Relative importance of these

    factors varies with the level of

    economic development

  • Range of Public Policy Measures Affecting Key Freight Parameters

  • Variations in CO2 Intensity by Freight Transport Mode

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    1400

    1600

    1800

    Airfr

    eigh

    tVa

    ns

    HGVs

    Inla

    nd w

    ater

    way

    s

    Coas

    tal s

    hipp

    ing

    Rail

    Pipe

    line

    CO

    2 g

    m p

    er t

    on

    ne-

    km

    Source: McKinnon / Commission for Integrated Transport

    Over-reliance of average modal intensity values

    Need to allow for international variations

    Need to extend the calculation boundary to

    include infrastructure and vehicle construction

    and maintenance

    g C

    O2 /

    tonne-k

    m

  • Comparison of Indian and European Long-haul Trucks

    84% are 2-3 axle rigids

    30 40 cubic metres capacity

    Max GVW: 9 t (2 axle) 25 t (3 axle)

    5-6 axle articulated vehicle

    82 cubic metres capacity

    Max GVW: 40 - 44 t

    Indian trucks are: slower - average speed: 35 km per hour vs 70 km per hour

    more densely loaded ( + more frequently overloaded)

    often under-powered (European typically over-powered)

    less fuel-efficient per tonne-km and per cubic metre -km

    Need to Adapt Green Logistics Strategies to Local Circumstances

  • Pressure to Increase the Maximum Size and Weight of Trucks

    Teardrop Cheetah

    DolphinBoat-tails Trailer under-tray

    Over cab spoiler

    Improving the Aerodynamic Profiling of Trucks

    Limited benefit in developing countries where average truck speed is low

  • 0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    1 4 7

    10

    13

    16

    19

    22

    25

    28

    31

    34

    37

    40

    43

    46

    49

    52

    55

    58

    61

    64

    67

    70

    73

    76

    79

    82

    85

    88

    91

    94

    97

    10

    0

    Speed (km/h)

    Ve

    hic

    le r

    es

    isti

    ve

    fo

    rce

    s (

    %)

    Internal vehicle friction (gear box, drive shaft, bearings, ...)

    Tire rolling resistance

    Aerodynamic forces

    Source: Michelin

    Aerodynamics have limited influence on fuel consumption at lower speeds

    speed

    Vehic

    le r

    esis

    tive forc

    e (

    %)

    EU average

    speed

    India average

    truck speed

  • Future Advances in Truck Technology

    Accelerate the diffusion of new truck technology into developing countries

    within infrastructural, financial and market constraints.

    Displacement of 2nd hand truck purchases from developed countries with

    indigenous production of freight vehicles

    Long vehicle life and lack of finance favours retrofitting of vehicles with

    energy-saving and emission-reducing equipment

  • Telematics

    real time fleet management

    increased confidence in schedule for backloading

    easing the impact of traffic congestion

    monitoring of driver behaviour to promote and

    embed eco-driving practices

  • Public Cost per tonne of CO2 saved: 8

    Advice and Encouragement on Sustainable Logistics

    Green Freight Europe (launched March (2012)

    US Environmental

    Protection Agency

    UK Government: Freight Best Practice Programme

    China Green Freight Initiative (April 2012)

  • Widening Responsibility for the Greening of Freight Transport

    Logistics System Design

    Vehicle Maintenance

    Driving

    Vehicle Loading

    Vehicle Routing and Scheduling

    Vehicle Design

    Supply Chain Structure

    Vehicle + equipment

    manufacturers

    Logistic service providers

    Individual shippers

    Supply chain partners

    Government

  • Levels of Logistical Decision-making

    STRATEGIC: numbers, locations and capacity of factories and warehouses

    Restructuring of logistical systems

    COMMERCIAL: trading links to suppliers, customers and sub-contractors

    Reconfiguring supply chains

    OPERATIONAL: scheduling of production and distribution operations

    Rescheduling of freight flows

    FUNCTIONAL: day-to-day management of the logistics function

    Changes in the management of freight transport

    Interaction between decisions at different level determines

    volume of freight traffic and related externalities

    Green measures implemented at lower levels offset by

    effects of higher level strategic decisions

  • Euro / tonne of CO2 emitted0 50 100 150 200 250

    Driver training

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