sustainability in kerala tea industry

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Sustainability of Kerala Tea Industry in the fast changing geo-political scenario of the world

Presentation by

Rakesh KumarAsstt. Director of Tea Development

2014TEA BOARD INDIAMinistry of Commerce & Industry, Department of Commerce14, B.T.M Sarani, Kolkata 700

Tea Statistics

PROFILE OF KERALA TEA INDUSTRY PLANTATION DISTRICTTOTAL NO.OF BIG TEA GARDENS(AREA IN HA)TOTAL NO.OF SMALL TEA GROWERS/AREA IN HA.TOTAL NO. OF ESTATE MANUFACTURING UNITTOTAL NO. OF BOUGHT LEAF MANUFACTURING UNITIDUKKI56(21947.57 Ha)3679(2297.35Ha)4207KOLLAM02(548.71 Ha)01(0.40 Ha.)0100TRISSUR01(529.76 Ha)000100KOTTAYAM0(0.00 Ha.)50(79.74 Ha.)0000TRIVANDRUM04(802.38 Ha)000100PALAKAD04(817.49 Ha)000400CALICUT (KOZHIKODE)0006(27.02 Ha.)0000WAYANAD25(5367.62 Ha.)2009(1364.67 Ha.)1103TOTAL92( 30013.53 Ha) 5745(3769.18)6010Source: TMS

Sustainability in Tea: Back to Nature

CHALLENGES BEFORE THE TEA INDUSTRY: ALL INDIA Labour Intensive IndustryGlobal Scenario: Losing position due to high cost and poor to average qualityCompetition with other beverages like soft drinks, Horlicks, bournvita, coffee etc.,Linking production to marketEmergence of new grower country like Vietnam, Indonesia & KenyaHigh Percentage of ageing bushes leading to low productivity and low rate of uprooting & replantingHigh Production Cost: almost 80% of the cost alone is on fixed expenses like fuel, power & LabourIgnorance of consumer about market structureImproper Marketing of Tea : The current auction system mainly controlled by the brokers and proper price realization is doubtfulTea is ready to drink item, the downstream stages such as blending, packaging and ultimate marketing are the most profitable one and in Tea all such profit margins are collected by the handful of stakeholderTea producer are ignorant of the market demand which has a direct impact on the long term sustainability of tea IndustryBirth of small tea growers & BLFs who is now contributing almost 32% of the total tea production are mainly scattered, un-organized and devoid of technical know-how , lack of extension services, poor farm practice & logistic ,affecting the quality of teaEnvironment Loss- Significant bio-diversity loss, High Energy Consumption, application of pesticides & fertilizers affecting the large no. of different species, leading to pollution to water etc.,

CHALLENGES BEFORE THE KERALA TEA INDUSTRY More than 75% of the total tea cultivation is confined to only one district Idukki Loss of Biodiversity :50% of the area under Idukki District falls under reserved forest. Conversion of Forest land into plantation results a threat to the Bio-diversityChange in climate due to ecological deterioration Degrading ecology exacerbated with large scale Eucalyptus plantation to meet the high thermal energy requirement in processing unit and loss of Biomass too Large numbers of concentration of small tea growers in Idukki District scattered mainly in the four tea growing zones who lacks the basics of technical know-how of tea growing vis--vis conservation of environmentHigh Percentage of ageing bushes leading to low productivity and low rate of uprooting & replantingHigh Cost of production and low productivity (70% of the total tea area is above 50 years of age)Mismatch between tea prices and Labour wages including social welfare costHigh Agriculture tax levied @ 50% which is the highest for any tea growing StateLack of soil conservation method leading to soil erosion , loss of top soil & landslidesAlmost 80% of the landscape of Idukki District falls under High Range Mountain Landscape represents the Western Ghats in terms of its ecological attributes, socio-economic profile and development trajectory. Tea occupies an extent of 142 Sq. Km of the total land use under HRMLEnvironment Loss- Significant bio-diversity loss, High Energy Consumption, application of pesticides & fertilizers affecting the large no. of different species, including pollution to water etc., Tourism:. This has increase the demand of land use, new infrastructure, encroachments, pollution, overcrowding, intensive resource use viz., water and electricity, etc. thus becomes a threat in conserving the biodiversity & the environment

INITIATIVES TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY OF KERALA TEA INDUSTRY Good Agricultural Practices Conservation of Bio-diversity by adopting sustainable approach in cultivation processPlanting alternative and different species of shade trees and energy plantation other than Eucalyptus speciesAdopt alternative source of thermal energy to reduce the dependency of bio-mass. Saving energy by adopting proper energy efficient option by doing energy audit assessment at regular interval in Each tea factoryBack to the Nature Plantation -The uprooting & Replanting of tea bushes as well as replacement planting may be done by adopting only Organic method of CultivationThe unproductive /old senile tea bushes shall be uprooted @ of minimum 2% of the total tea area so as to follow a cycle of renewing the entire tea estate in every 50 years.Selection of Planting Material High yielding good quality clones which are suited for the region viz., resistant to pest & disease , drought resistance shall be preferred for planting Reduction in the use of chemicals, pesticides, weedicide etc., which has an adverse affect on the climate and bio-diversity. The banned chemicals shall not be used in plantation sector. Follow the Boards Trustea and PPC Code.Linking production with market so as to maintain the Demand supply of the productValue addition Tourism- The new tourism destination in the High Range Mountain Landscape shall be discouragedTraining & Capacity building to tea farmers & groups towards sustainability in tea and organizing the small tea growers into SHGs Geographical Indication of the teas grown in Kerala /Idukki for Quality enhancement and enforcement on tea is important for trade promotion as done in case of Darjeeling, Assam & Nilgiris teaImprovement in the present marketing system of Tea viz., Maximum participation of the buyers in purchasing from any part of India, redefining the role of broker in the present auction systems etc.,Field Mechanization to overcome the shortage of Labour and to reduce the cost of production

Role Of Stakeholders towards sustainability of Kerala Tea Industry

Rakesh Kumar, ADTD9

Role of Stakeholders towards sustainability in Kerala Tea IndustryOwners/Tea Companies/STG/BLFsPlough back the profits back to gardenAdopt GAP in the tea gardensFollow the Government guidelines and different Act in spirit viz., Plantation Labour Act, Factories Act, Tea Act & TMCO, FSSAI etc.,Improve the working condition in garden Maintain transparency in every step from cultivation to marketingSTG shall improve the quality of leaf and form SHG/Co-operatives to get the benefits of Govt. initiatives/setting up own T.FBLFs shall take only good quality leaf for processing and shall provide advisory service to the STGs towards GAPConserve the environment and Bio-diversity in every step All Processing Unit shall go for Quality Certification ISO/HACCP and the estate shall also go for Organic Method of cultivationCheck for the Quality parameter before getting out of the tea from factory premise/commercial use

Buyers/Tea Traders/PacketiersMaintain the transparency in the entire value chainPass on/distribute the profit margin equally to all value chainProvide additional price for the tea produced by way of sustainable approachDo not lobby to dilute the social protections or the welfare measures meant for the workersConduct Multi-stakeholder meetings and appraise them about the market preferences and the quality and quantity requirementsDo market research both domestic & International and share the outcome to all the value chainMaintain the demand-supply margin to keep the prices under controlDo not stock tea for future marketingObtain quality certification for packaging or blending units as well as for the brandCheck for the quality parameters by sending the sample to NABL accredited Laboratories before commercial use for FSSAI parameter & MRLs

Role of Stakeholders towards sustainability in Kerala Tea IndustryNGOsShall undertake the Social Welfare Program , educate the workers towards good health and better working environmentImpart trainings on sustainable method of cultivations, conservation of environment and bio-diversity Improve the workers by developing their skills , other livelihood method other than dependency on pay roll to the gardens so as to overcome the situation of crisis of closure of the gardensEncourage the owner/planters/tea traders to implement effective code of conductImpart training to workers towards safety measures while doing work in garden, handling hazardous chemicals for spraying etc.,Support for broad based rural development, including the development of local processing capacity and producer association, and measure to improve credit and risk management facilitiesEducate the growers about the different social & welfare measures and unite them to get the facilityAssist the small tea growers in formation of the SHGs/Societies and help in necessary tie up with the producer for selling their tea leaves at reasonable priceArrange the stakeholder meeting for sharing their experience to the entire value chain and to work out a model for sustainability on Tea

ConsumersShall buy the products that are manufactured through sustainable approachShall participate in the awareness program call for all the stakeholders to have an overall knowledge of the entire value chain of tea industryShall look for the different certification which have a guarantee on different quality aspect of TeaShall visit the official site to acquaint t


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