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  • Supporting Effective Supporting Effective Interventions for Struggling Interventions for Struggling

    ReadersReaders

    Dr. Joseph K. TorgesenDr. Joseph K. TorgesenFlorida State UniversityFlorida State University

    Florida Center for Reading ResearchFlorida Center for Reading Research

    CoachCoachs Literacy Conference, August, 2005s Literacy Conference, August, 2005

  • If you could have one wish focused on helping If you could have one wish focused on helping more of your students become proficient more of your students become proficient readers, what would it be?readers, what would it be?

    Greater funding?Greater funding?

    Greater parental support?Greater parental support?

    Better prepared teachers?Better prepared teachers?

    Better prepared principals?Better prepared principals?

    How about less How about less diversity among our diversity among our students in their students in their talenttalentand and preparationpreparation for for learning to read?

    More hours in the day?More hours in the day?learning to read?Fewer hours in the day?Fewer hours in the day?

    Better physical facilities?Better physical facilities?

    Higher pay for teachers, principals, and coaches?Higher pay for teachers, principals, and coaches?

  • The problem of diversity in talent and The problem of diversity in talent and preparation for learning to readpreparation for learning to read

    A central problem in reading instruction A central problem in reading instruction arises, not from the arises, not from the absoluteabsolute level of level of childrenchildrens preparation for learning to s preparation for learning to read, but from the read, but from the diversitydiversity in their in their levels of preparationlevels of preparation(Olson, 1998)(Olson, 1998)

  • What are the most important ways children are What are the most important ways children are diversediverse--when it comes to learning to read?when it comes to learning to read?

    1. They are diverse in their talent and their preparation 1. They are diverse in their talent and their preparation for learning to read words accurately and fluentlyfor learning to read words accurately and fluently

    2. They are diverse in their oral language knowledge 2. They are diverse in their oral language knowledge and abilitiesand abilities--vocabulary and world knowledgevocabulary and world knowledge

    3. They are diverse in their abilities to manage their 3. They are diverse in their abilities to manage their learning behaviors and their motivation to apply learning behaviors and their motivation to apply them selves to learning to readthem selves to learning to read

  • Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice.

    The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled Reading(Scarborough, 2001)

    BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE

    VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

    LANGUAGE STRUCTURES

    VERBAL REASONING

    LITERACY KNOWLEDGE

    PHON. AWARENESS

    DECODING (and SPELLING)

    SIGHT RECOGNITION

    SKILLED READING:fluent execution andcoordination of word recognition and textcomprehension.

    LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION

    WORD RECOGNITION

    increasi

    ngly

    automat

    ic

    increasinglystrategic

    Skilled Reading-fluent coordination of

    word reading and comprehension

    processes

  • Diversity exemplified Diversity exemplified in the lives of three in the lives of three

    childrenchildren

    Differences in talent and Differences in talent and preparation for learning to preparation for learning to

    read wordsread words

  • Talent and preparation for learning to read words varies enormously among young children

    100

    50th

    85

    16th

    70

    2nd

    130

    98th

    115

    84th

    Children can be strong in this talent-like my grandson Andrew

    Percentile Ranks

    Standard Scores

  • Talent and preparation for learning to read words varies enormously among young children

    50th

    10085

    16th

    70

    2nd

    130

    98th

    115

    84th

    Percentile Ranks

    Children can be moderately weak in this talent-like David

    Standard Scores

  • David

  • Talent and preparation for learning to read words varies enormously among young children

    50th

    16th

    1008570

    2nd

    130

    98th

    115

    84th

    Percentile Ranks

    Serious difficulties-probably require special interventions and a lot of extra support-like Alexis

    Standard Scores

  • AlexisAlexis..

  • The challenge of diversity in talent and preparation for The challenge of diversity in talent and preparation for learning to readlearning to read

    Diversity in talent and preparationDiversity in talent and preparation

    11 100100

    Diversity of educational responseDiversity of educational response

    3030 7070

  • The challenge of diversity in talent and preparation for The challenge of diversity in talent and preparation for learning to readlearning to read

    Diversity in talent and preparationDiversity in talent and preparation

    3030 7070

    11 100100

    Diversity of educational responseDiversity of educational response

    11 100100

    interventions

  • What are the primary areas most likely to need What are the primary areas most likely to need intervention to prevent reading difficulties?intervention to prevent reading difficulties?

    1. Interventions to improve phonemic awareness, 1. Interventions to improve phonemic awareness, letter knowledge, phonemic decoding, and reading letter knowledge, phonemic decoding, and reading fluencyfluency

    2. Interventions to improve vocabulary, background 2. Interventions to improve vocabulary, background knowledge, thinking/reasoning, and active knowledge, thinking/reasoning, and active comprehension strategiescomprehension strategies

    3. Interventions to help students become more 3. Interventions to help students become more engaged in learning and do more reading with engaged in learning and do more reading with materials at the right level and within an materials at the right level and within an accountability frameworkaccountability framework

  • The circular relationship between skill and The circular relationship between skill and motivation in readingmotivation in reading

    If we want children to learn to If we want children to learn to read wellread well, we must , we must find a way to induce them to find a way to induce them to read lotsread lots..

    If we want to induce children to If we want to induce children to read lotsread lots, we must teach them to , we must teach them to read wellread well..

    Marilyn Jager AdamsMarilyn Jager Adams

  • A moment on motivationA moment on motivationDetailed studies of effective teachers document that they are Detailed studies of effective teachers document that they are powerful motivators:powerful motivators:

    Basically, we found that engaging primaryBasically, we found that engaging primary--grades teachers do grades teachers do something every minute of every hour of every school day to something every minute of every hour of every school day to motivate their students, using every conceivable motivational motivate their students, using every conceivable motivational mechanism to do somechanism to do so------from praising specific accomplishments from praising specific accomplishments to reminding students how well they perform when they try to to reminding students how well they perform when they try to encouraging constructive possible selves (e.g., imagining encouraging constructive possible selves (e.g., imagining themselves going to college). themselves going to college). Pressley, 2004Pressley, 2004

  • A moment on motivationA moment on motivationDetailed studies of effective teachers document that they are Detailed studies of effective teachers document that they are powerful motivators:powerful motivators:

    Less engaging teachers actually do much to Less engaging teachers actually do much to undermineunderminestudent motivation, including, for example, establishing a student motivation, including, for example, establishing a negative tone in the class, placing great emphasis on extrinsic negative tone in the class, placing great emphasis on extrinsic rewards, calling attention to weak performances by students, rewards, calling attention to weak performances by students, providing ineffective or unclear feedback, and fostering providing ineffective or unclear feedback, and fostering competition among students. Engaging teachers never teach competition among students. Engaging teachers never teach in ways that undermine studentsin ways that undermine students motivation. motivation. Pressley, 2004Pressley, 2004

  • What are the What are the key ingredientskey ingredients at the at the classroom and school level needed to classroom and school level needed to prevent reading difficulties in young prevent reading difficulties in young

    children?children?

  • A model for preventing reading failure in grades A model for preventing reading failure in grades KK--3: The big Ideas3: The big Ideas

    1. Increase the quality, consistency, and 1. Increase the quality, consistency, and reachreach of of instruction in every Kinstruction in every K--3 classroom3 classroom

    2. Conduct timely and valid assessments of reading 2. Conduct timely and valid assessments of reading growth to identify struggling readersgrowth to identify struggling readers

    3. Provide more intensive interventions to 3. Provide more intensive interventions to catch upcatch upthe struggling readersthe stru

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