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  • advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/8/e1600901/DC1

    Supplementary Materials for

    Three-dimensional all-dielectric metamaterial solid immersion lens for

    subwavelength imaging at visible frequencies

    Wen Fan, Bing Yan, Zengbo Wang, Limin Wu

    Published 12 August 2016, Sci. Adv. 2, e1600901 (2016)

    DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600901

    This PDF file includes:

     fig. S1. Wafer pattern used for evaluating the magnification factor and field of view of a TiO2 mSIL.

     fig. S2. Estimation of the effective refractive index and particle volume fraction of a TiO2 mSIL.

     fig. S3. Field of view of a TiO2 mSIL.

     fig. S4. The limiting resolution obtained with a TiO2 hemispherical mSIL.

     fig. S5. The super-resolution images obtained with a TiO2 super-hemispherical mSIL.

     fig. S6. Direct imaging of wafer patterns by an optical microscope.

     fig. S7. Direct optical observation of 50-nm latex beads located on the surface of a Blu-ray disk.

     fig. S8. Comparisons of TiO2 hemispherical mSIL assembled from 15- or 45-nm anatase TiO2 nanoparticles.

     fig. S9. Nano–solid-fluid assembly for the TiO2 optical fiber.

     fig. S10. Characterizations of 15-nm anatase TiO2 nanoparticles.

  • Supplementary Figures

    fig. S1. Wafer pattern used for evaluating the magnification factor and field of view of a TiO2

    mSIL. (a) SEM image of the wafer pattern, which shows 400-nm-wide squares with a pitch of 200

    nm. (b) Optical micrograph of the wafer pattern at a magnification of ×2,100, indicating that the

    conventional optical microscopy will fail to reveal the shape of the squares due to the Abbe

    diffraction limit.

  • fig. S2. Estimation of the effective refractive index and particle volume fraction of a TiO2 mSIL.

    The experimentally observed correlation between the magnification factor and the height-to-width

    ratio for mSIL of 10 μm (red), 15 μm (green) and 20 μm (blue) in Fig. 2. Theoretical curve (black) is

    obtained using geometry optics analysis with an effective index of 1.95. Moreover, the effective

    index of mSIL mSILn can be expressed as pam rSI tiL a clir e partiir ca len n V n V    , where airn =1 is the

    refractive index of air, particlen =2.55 is the refractive index of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles at λ=550 nm,

    airV is the volume fraction of air in mSIL and particleV is the volume fraction of TiO2 nanoparticles in

    mSIL. Therefore, we can calculate that particleV =61.3%.

  • fig. S3. Field of view of a TiO2 mSIL. In Fig. 2, the field of view of mSIL increases almost linearly

    with an increase in the width of mSIL from 10 μm to 20 μm.

  • fig. S4. The limiting resolution obtained with a TiO2 hemispherical mSIL. Optical micrographs

    focused on (a) the wafer pattern, and (b) the 1.8 times magnified virtual image created by a TiO2

    hemispherical mSIL. The corresponding SEM images of (c) the hemispherical mSIL and (d) the

    wafer pattern with 75 nm features, the dashed circle in (d) represents the field of view seen in (b).

    The hemispherical mSIL has a width of 15 μm. The results indicate that the hemispherical mSIL

    with a magnification factor of 1.8 is insufficient to resolve the features below 75 nm.

  • fig. S5. The super-resolution images obtained with a TiO2 super-hemispherical mSIL. Optical

    micrographs of a TiO2 super-hemispherical mSIL focused on the surface of a wafer pattern with 50

    nm features (without gold coating) under an illumination of (a) white light, (b) green light (λ~540

    nm) or (c) blue light (λ~470 nm), respectively. The super-hemispherical mSIL has a magnification

    factor of 3.0 and a width of 15 μm. The optical micrographs were taken using an Olympus BX63

    light microscope equipped with a 5-megapixel CCD camera (Olympus, DP26) and a 100× objective

    lens (Olympus, LMPlanFL N, NA=0.8).

  • fig. S6. Direct imaging of wafer patterns by an optical microscope. Optical micrographs of a

    wafer pattern with (a to c) 50 nm features (without gold coating) or (e to g) 45 nm features (after

    gold coating) under an illumination of (a, e) white light, (b, f) green light (λ~540 nm) or (c, g) blue

    light (λ~470 nm), respectively. The optical micrographs were taken using an Olympus BX63 light

    microscope equipped with a 5-megapixel CCD camera (Olympus, DP26) and a 100× objective lens

    (Olympus, LMPlanFL N, NA=0.8). SEM images of the corresponding wafer pattern with (d) 50 nm

    features or (h) 45 nm features. The results indicate that the optical microscope is unable to resolve

    the subwavelength details of the wafer patterns.

  • fig. S7. Direct optical observation of 50-nm latex beads located on the surface of a Blu-ray disk.

    (a) Optical micrograph and (b) SEM image of 50 nm polystyrene latex beads (Coulter N4 size

    control standards, Beckman Coulter, USA) located on the surface of a blank Blu-ray disk, as

    indicated by the arrows. The mSIL has a magnification factor of 2.5 and a width of 18 μm. The

    optical micrograph was taken using an Olympus BX63 light microscope.

  • fig. S8. Comparisons of TiO2 hemispherical mSIL assembled from 15- or 45-nm anatase TiO2

    nanoparticles. Optical micrographs of a Blu-ray disc observed through hemispherical mSIL

    composed of (a) 15 nm or (b) 45 nm anatase TiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. High magnification

    SEM images of (c and d) the top surfaces, and (e and f) the bottom surfaces of the hemispherical

    mSIL composed of 15 nm or 45 nm TiO2 nanoparticles, respectively. The results indicate that 15 nm

    TiO2 nanoparticles will provide a denser packing structure of nanoparticles and better imprinting of

    nano-scale features, leading to more clear observation of subwavelength details.

  • fig. S9. Nano–solid-fluid assembly for the TiO2 optical fiber. (a) SEM image of a 260-µm-

    diameter TiO2 wire prepared by injection molding of 15 nm TiO2 nano-solid-fluid using a 25 G

    plastic needle. (b) Photograph obtained by illuminating one end of a TiO2 wire with 650 nm laser,

    indicating that the TiO2 wire can be used as optical fiber for low-loss light transmission over long

    distances. Inset: The optical micrograph indicates that the TiO2 wire is highly transparent to visible

    light.

  • fig. S10. Characterizations of 15-nm anatase TiO2 nanoparticles. (a) Number-average particle

    size distribution of the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles measured by Zetasizer Nano ZS90 (Malvern

    instruments Ltd., UK), showing a peak at 15 nm. (b) Typical HRTEM image of a single anatase TiO2

    nanoparticle performed on a Tecnai G2 F20 (Philips, Holland), indicating the nanocrystal has a

    highly crystalline structure and an approximately spherical shape. (c) High magnification SEM

    image of the dense and short-range order arrangement of TiO2 nanoparticles in mSIL.

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