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  • Argonne National Laboratory is managed by The University of Chicago for the U. S. Department of Energy

    ANL-AFCI-150

    Summary of Generation-IV Transmutation Impacts

    Nuclear Engineering DivisionArgonne National Laboratory

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  • Argonne National Laboratory is managed by The University of Chicago for the U. S. Department of Energy

    Summary of Generation-IV Transmutation Impacts

    ANL-AFCI-150

    by T. A. Taiwo and R. N. HillNuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory

    June 30, 2005

  • Summary of Generation-IV Transmutation Impacts

    T. A. Taiwo and R. N. Hill

    Nuclear Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory

    9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439

    June 30, 2005

  • iii

    Table of Contents

    Page

    Table of Contents........................................................................................................................... iii

    List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. iv

    List of Figures ................................................................................................................................. v

    ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................... 1

    1.0 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................ 2

    2.0 COMPARISON OF TRANSMUTATION PHYSICS......................................................... 4

    3.0 VHTR TRANSMUTATION PERFORMANCE ............................................................... 10

    3.1 Base Generation Design .............................................................................................. 10

    3.1.1 Base VHTR Waste Characterization .................................................................11

    3.1.2 Uranium Ore Utilization ....................................................................................18

    3.2 VHTR Transmutation Concepts ..................................................................................20

    3.2.1 General Thermal Recycle Considerations.........................................................20

    3.2.2 Deep-Burn Concept ...........................................................................................22

    4.0 SUPERCRITICAL-WATER REACTOR DESIGNS FOR AFCI MISSIONS.................. 25

    4.1 Base SCWR Concepts ..................................................................................................25

    4.2 SCWR Transmutation ..................................................................................................27

    5.0 SFR TRANSMUTATION SYSTEMS................................................................................31

    5.1 SFR Gen-IV Systems ...................................................................................................31

    5.2 SFR Burner Design Studies..........................................................................................35

    6.0 GFR TRANSMUTATION SYSTEMS...............................................................................42

    6.1 GFR Gen-IV Systems...................................................................................................42

    6.2 GFR Burner Design Studies .........................................................................................44

    7.0 LFR TRANSMUTATION SYSTEMS ...............................................................................47

    7.1 LFR Gen-IV Systems ...................................................................................................47

    7.2 LFR Burner Design Studies .........................................................................................49

    8.0 ROLE OF GEN-IV SYSTEMS IN AN ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE ..............................51

    9.0 CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................................................59

  • iv

    List of Tables

    Page

    Table 1. Comparison of D-Factors for the Generation-IV Concepts ...................................... 6

    Table 2. Comparison of Key One-Group Cross Sections for the Generation-IV Concepts .... 7

    Table 3. Design Parameters for a VHTR Prismatic Block Concept ...................................... 10

    Table 4. Comparison of Spent Fuel Properties of VHTR and PWRs .................................... 12

    Table 5. Plutonium in PWR and VHTR Spent Fuel .............................................................. 15

    Table 6. Comparison of Decay Heat of VHTR and PWR Spent Fuel ................................... 16

    Table 7. Comparison of Spent Fuel Radiotoxicity................................................................ 18

    Table 8. Enriched UO2 and Uranium Ore Requirements in PWR and VHTR Systems ........ 19

    Table 9. Consumptions in 800 MWt VHTR Equilibrium Core using 200m Fuel............... 23

    Table 10. Design Parameters for a Thermal-Spectrum SCWR Concept ................................. 26

    Table 11. Design Parameters for a Fast-Spectrum SCWR Concept ........................................ 27

    Table 12. Mixed Spectrum SCWR Transmuter Design Parameters ........................................ 29

    Table 13. Summary of Pu, Np, and Am Multi-Recycling in MS2 Concept............................. 30

    Table 14. Basic Design Parameters for Current GIF SFR Systems......................................... 33

    Table 15. Compact Core Reactor Performance Data for Different CR Reactors .................... 37

    Table 16. Reactivity Worth Coefficients for the Compact Core.............................................. 38

    Table 17. Levelized Cost of Electricity for SFR Burners........................................................ 41

    Table 18. Design Parameters for GFR Concept....................................................................... 43

    Table 19. Block Fuel Reactor Performance with Decreasing Conversion Ratio..................... 46

    Table 20. SSTAR Core Conditions and Performance ............................................................. 48

    Table 21. Attributes and Performance of Low Conversion Ratio LFR Designs ..................... 50

    Table 22. Comparison of Generation-IV Burner Requirements .............................................. 53

    Table 23. Comparison of Gen-IV Fast Burner Performance (CR=0.25 Design)..................... 54

    Table 24. SFR Burner Performance with Varying PWR and VHTR TRU Feeds ................... 55

    Table 25. SFR Pure Burner Performance in a Multi-Tier Fuel Cycle ..................................... 57

  • v

    List of Figures

    Page

    Figure 1. Comparison of Neutron Energy Spectra of Gen-IV Reactors ................................... 4

    Figure 2. Comparison of Fission/Absorption Ratio for PWR and SFR .................................... 5

    Figure 3. Plutonium Isotopic Mass over Irradiation Period in gram/IHMMT ....................... 14

    Figure 4. Schematics of the VHTR Deep-Burn Two-Pass Transmutation Option ................. 24

    Figure 5. Axial and Planar Layouts of MS2 Core ................................................................... 28

  • vi

  • 1

    ABSTRACT

    An assessment of the potential role of Generation IV nuclear systems in an advanced fuel

    cycle has been performed. The Generation IV systems considered are the thermal-spectrum

    VHTR and SCWR, and the f

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