Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

Download Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

Post on 05-Apr-2018

219 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    1/31

    DIAMONDS & POLYGONS:Frameworks for inclusive urbanization

    SUMILA GULYANI

    Urbanization Knowledge Platform

    The World Bank, Washington, DC

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    2/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    1. Poverty rates & income inequality

    poverty rate (absolute poverty); Gini coefficient (relative poverty)

    2. Poverty is rural in South Asia

    3. Mitigate by using social safety nets

    e.g. employment guarantee schemes, food subsidies, pensions

    (conditional) cash transfer programs

    4. Rights-based approaches & universal access goals

    Right to education, housing, justice, health care, water; MDGs

    5. Participatory & inclusive governance

    As inequality or exclusion, social tensions

    THE DISCOURSE ON INCLUSION

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    3/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    POVERTY MAP: NAIROBI

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    4/31

    DIAMONDS AND POLYGONS

    Plotting conditions in Nairobi and Dakar

    1

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    5/31

    NAIROBIS SLUMS

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    6/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    DEVELOPMENT DIAMOND: NAIROBIs SLUMS

    28%

    WELFARE% above poverty line

    EMPLOYMENT% working

    EDUCATION

    % completed primary

    LIVINGCONDITIONS

    % with perm wall, waterand electricity

    68%

    79%

    3%

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    7/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    DEVELOPMENT DIAMOND: DAKARs SLUMS

    18%

    WELFARE% above poverty line

    EMPLOYMENT% working

    EDUCATION

    % completed primary

    LIVING CONDITIONS% with perm wall, water

    and electricity

    39%

    36%

    74%

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    8/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    SLUM DEVELOPMENT DIAMOND: SLUMS of NAIROBI AND DAKAR

    NAIROBI DAKAR

    18%

    36%

    74%

    28%

    68%

    79%

    3% 39%

    WELFARE% above poverty line

    EMPLOYMENT% working

    EDUCATION% completed primary

    LIVING

    CONDITIONS% with permwall, water

    and electricity

    WELFARE% above poverty line

    EMPLOYMENT% working

    EDUCATION% completed primary

    LIVING

    CONDITIONS% with permwall, water

    and electricity

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    9/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    LIVING CONDITIONS DIAMOND

    UNIT

    INFRASTRUCTURE

    TENURE

    NEIGHBORHOOD

    & LOCATION

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    10/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    INFRASTRUCTURE POLYGON: NAIROBIS SLUMS

    PIPEDWATER ELECTRICITY

    TOILET

    SEWAGEDISPOSAL

    GARBAGEPICKUP

    DRAINAGE

    19%

    22%

    25%

    12%12%

    25%

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    11/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    INFRASTRUCTURE POLYGON: DAKARS SLUMS

    84%

    82%

    94%

    4%

    66%73%

    PIPEDWATER ELECTRICITY

    TOILET

    SEWAGEDISPOSAL

    GARBAGEPICKUP

    DRAINAGE

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    12/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    PIPEDWATER ELECTRICITY

    TOILET

    SEWAGEDISPOSAL

    GARBAGEPICKUP

    DRAINAGE

    INFRASTRUCTURE POLYGON: NAIROBI AND DAKAR

    NAIROBI DAKAR

    PIPEDWATER ELECTRICITY

    TOILET

    SEWAGEDISPOSAL

    GARBAGEPICKUP

    DRAINAGE

    19% 22%

    25%

    12%12%

    25%

    84%

    82%

    94%4%

    66%73%

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    13/31

    THE LIVING CONDITIONS DIAMOND:

    Why is quality so bad in Nairobi?

    2

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    14/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    LIVING CONDITIONS DIAMOND: A DYNAMIC FRAMEWORK

    UNIT

    INFRASTRUCTURE

    TENURE

    NEIGHBORHOOD& LOCATION

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    15/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    UNIT- 12% have permanent walls- 1.6 rooms per household- 2.6 persons per room

    INFRASTRUCTURE- 22% have electricity- Water: 19%, toilets: 25%; drains: 25%; sewer: 12%- Public garbage collection: 11%; street lights: 17%

    LIVING CONDITIONS DIAMOND: NAIROBI

    TENURE- 8% own homes- Informal land tenure- Move house in 5 yrs (avg)

    NEIGHBORHOOD & LOCATION- 37% feel safe

    - High density, irregular layout- Some located in hazardous sites

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    16/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    LIVING CONDITIONS DIAMOND: NAIROBI AND DAKAR

    NAIROBI DAKAR

    UNIT12%

    withpermanent

    walls

    INFRASTRUCTURE22% with electricity

    TENURE8%

    ownhomes

    NEIGHBORHOOD& LOCATION37% feel safe

    UNIT96%

    withpermanent

    walls

    INFRASTRUCTURE82% with electricity

    TENURE74%

    ownhomes

    NEIGHBORHOOD& LOCATION48% feel safe

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    17/31

    WHAT SHOULD BE DONE?

    IN WHAT SQUENCE?

    3

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    18/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    28%

    WELFARE% above poverty line

    EMPLOYMENT% working

    EDUCATION% completed primary

    LIVING

    CONDITIONS% with permwall, water

    and electricity

    68%

    79%

    3%

    SLUM DEVELOPMENT(Improving lives)

    INFRASTRUCTURE(Improving services)

    WHAT SHOULD BE DONE? SEVERAL OPTIONS

    PIPEDWATER ELECTRICITY

    TOILET

    SEWAGEDISPOSAL

    GARBAGEPICKUP

    PUBLIC

    TRANSIT

    19% 22%

    25%

    12%12%

    20%

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    19/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    UNIT- 12% have permanent walls

    INFRASTRUCTURE- 22% have electricity

    UPGRADINGS MESO GOAL?: IMPROVING LIVING CONDITIONS

    TENURE- 8% own homes

    NEIGHBORHOOD & LOCATION- 37% feel safe

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    20/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    21/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    AND IN DAKAR, EMPHASIZE EDUCATION & JOBS

    18%

    WELFARE% above poverty line

    EMPLOYMENT% working

    EDUCATION

    % completed primary

    LIVING CONDITIONS% with perm wall, water

    and electricity

    39%

    36%

    74%

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    22/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    BROADER IMPLICATIONS

    4

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    23/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    1. Poverty is multi-dimensional. Its not just income.

    2. Inclusive access to jobs, education, living conditions

    3. Education/incomes insufficient to ensure good living

    conditions They are a key element of poverty

    Improving living conditions must be a development goal in itself

    Urban policymakers should push for both of the above

    BROADER IMPLICATIONS: URBAN POVERTY & INCLUSION

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    24/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    4. Heterogeneity among & within cities

    Within cities: among neighborhoods & among HHs

    5. Entry points for inclusion vary by context

    6. Diamonds & Polygons: Tools for decisions Provide baselines & overtime highlight dynamics

    Help reveal whatinterventions

    Help understand howto intervene

    BROADER IMPLICATIONS: URBAN POVERTY & INCLUSION

    MNA ARABIA AGRABAH MAYOR DASHBOARD PROTOTYPE

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    25/31

    Environment

    GHG emission/capita:

    Air pollution: PM2.5 orPM10

    MNA > ARABIA > AGRABAH MAYORs DASHBOARD PROTOTYPE

    PEERGROUPS:

    Mid-East , C40 ,C100

    WBPROJECTS:

    Transport | Urban

    MDG s:

    (report)

    Economics & Business

    GROWTH

    (report)

    COMPOSITION

    (report)

    Development & Infrastructure

    UNEMPLOYMENT: 11%

    DOING BUSINSS: 5th(Natl) | 42nd(MNA)

    ENTERPRISES

    Global Rankings

    INDEX WORLD MNA

    Population 131 9

    GDP 139 7

    Green Index 20 3

    Congestion N/A N/A

    Livable Index 62 3

    58%Citizen Feedback

    Satisfaction

    Confidence 57 CONSUMER

    FIRM

    SCity Management & Finance

    CREDITRATING A- (report)

    BUDGETALLOCATN:

    REVENUEEXPENDITURE

    $3,523 mil, $210/capita$4,100 mil, $244/capita

    ASSETS /LIABILITIES

    parks, public space, cultural,brown-field, crime, climate vuln

    DEBT $8,300 mil , $290/capita STAFF: 62,205

    Thematic Indicators

    Economy

    Environment

    Social Inclusion

    Governance

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    26/31

    THANK YOU

  • 8/2/2019 Sumila Gulyani_Diamonds Inclusive Cities Inclusive Growth

    27/31

    S. Gulyani-June 2008

    WHAT SHO

Recommended

View more >