Structuring Ideation Map using Oriented Directed Acyclic Graph with Privacy Preferences
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DESCRIPTIONE-Brainstorming is a computerized version of sharing ideas and it replaces verbal communication. The productivity of ideas generated is viewed as the dominant measure of EBrainstorming. In Agent-based E-Brainstorming, Idea Ontology was used to map users knowledge with idea names and relationships between idea instances. In this paper Oriented Directed Acyclic Graph (ODAG) method is used to construct the ideation map for diverse ideas and their relationship. Privacy Preference Ontology is integrated to provide privacy preference for users data like access control, condition, access space and restriction.
<ul><li><p>ACEEE Int. J. on Information Technology , Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec 2013</p><p> 2013 ACEEEDOI: 01.IJIT.3.4.</p><p>Short Paper</p><p>Structuring Ideation Map using Oriented DirectedAcyclic Graph with Privacy Preferences</p><p>S.Manju, M.PunithavalliSri Ramakrishna College of Arts & Science for Women / Computer Science, Coimbatore, India</p><p>Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgSri Ramakrishna Engineering College / Computer Applications, Coimbatore, India</p><p>Email: email@example.com</p><p>1263</p><p>Abstract- E-Brainstorming is a computerized version of sharingideas and it replaces verbal communication. The productivityof ideas generated is viewed as the dominant measure of E-Brainstorming. In Agent-based E-Brainstorming, IdeaOntology was used to map users knowledge with idea namesand relationships between idea instances. In this paperOriented Directed Acyclic Graph (ODAG) method is used toconstruct the ideation map for diverse ideas and theirrelationship. Privacy Preference Ontology is integrated toprovide privacy preference for users data like access control,condition, access space and restriction. Here the IdeaKnowledge Base is applied and it enfolds a collection of ideainstances of different domains to denote a clients knowledge.</p><p>Index TermsE-Brainstorming, Intelligent agents, PrivacyPreference Ontology (PPO), Oriented Directed Acyclic Graph(ODAG).</p><p>I. INTRODUCTION</p><p>E-Brainstorming (EB) is a computerized format of sharingideas and it replaces verbal communication. This techniqueallows all the participants to contribute their ideas at sametime and it effectively eliminates Production Blocking  andreduces Social Loafing. The productivity of ideas generatedhas been viewed as the dominant measure of E-Brainstorming.Briggs and Reining  provided a theoretical explanation inBounded Ideation Theory to clarify the relationship betweenidea quantity and idea quality. They also recommendedguidance for the development of ideation techniques forimproving the quality  of ideas. A good idea was definedas one that is feasible to implement and would attain thegoal.</p><p>Although brainstorming has become a popular grouptechnique, researchers have not found evidence of itseffectiveness for enhancing either quantity or quality of ideasgenerated. Because of such problems as social loafing,occurs when participants in a group feel unmotivated andthey think their contributions will not be valued. Evaluationapprehension, occurs when individuals withhold their ideasout of concern that others may not approve them. Productionblocking, occurs when something prevents a participant fromverbalizing their ideas as they occur e.g. forgetting an ideawhile waiting for a turn to speak. Traditional brainstormingdoes not increase the productivity of groups, it may stillprovide benefits, such as boosting morale, enhancing workenjoyment, and improving team work. This system aims atincorporating a modified E-Brainstorming ideation model,</p><p>which integrates Flexible ideation map construction forideation rounds. In the existing system, tree like ideation mapwas constructed in which the SILA(Semantic IdeationLearning Agent) performed the associations with respect toa given idea and then generated their creative ideas and itwas termed as Ideation Round. In this work, an efficientOriented Directed Acyclic Graph (ODAG) method is usedto construct the ideation map for diverse ideas and theirrelationship and ontology is improved to include privacypreferences . This strategy provides privacy for all differentgroups. FOAF (Friend of a Friend) vocabulary retrieves thefriends of a particular group. Access controller enables accessrestrictions e.g. read and write. This System works withintelligent agents based environment with privacypreferences and mapping is done with different domainsareas. The agents are filtered and grouped according to theirknowledge domain.</p><p>II. BRAINSTORMING TECHNIQUES- REVIEW</p><p>Brainstorming is a technique for generating a large numberof ideas for creative problem solving. The term brainstormingwas first used by . The generation of new ideas, especiallyhigh quality creative ideas, is important for a problem. It is apopular method of group interaction in both educational andbusiness sectors. Brainstorming engenders synergy i.e., anidea from one participant can trigger a new idea in anotherparticipant. Brainstorming has been recognized as an effectivegroup decision supporting approach. Lin  developedbrainstorming based multifunctional system which supportscollaborating works on creative activity and decision making.</p><p>Most ideation research either implicitly or explicitlyassumes Osborns conjecture that if people generate moreideas, then they will produce more good ideas. Osbornreported evidence that people generate more good ideas inthe second half of a brainstorming session than during thefirst half. Some studies have also reported that certainideation protocols can elevate both idea quantity and ideaquality. However, another work reported no relationshipbetween idea quality and idea quantity. That is, previousideation literatures were inconsistent in the arguments .</p><p>Briggs and Reining  provided a theoretical explanation(Bounded Ideation Theory) to clarify the relationship be-tween idea quantity and idea quality, and they recommendedguidance for the development of ideation techniques for im-proving the quality of ideas. A good idea was defined as one</p><p>22</p></li><li><p> 2013 ACEEEDOI: 01.IJIT.3.4.</p><p>ACEEE Int. J. on Information Technology , Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec 2013</p><p>Short Paper</p><p>that is feasible to implement and would attain the goal. TheBounded Ideation Theory was a causal model of the ideationfunction (the relationship between the cumulative number ofgood ideas contributed during an ideation process and thetotal number of ideas generated). Their causal model identi-fied three essential boundaries of human ideation capability(an understanding boundary, a cognitive boundary and anendurance boundary) that influence the production of goodideas.</p><p>The understanding boundary indicates that therelationship between the number of good ideas and the totalnumber of ideas becomes a curvilinear function with a positivebut decreasing slope once an understanding of the task hasbeen achieved. The cognitive boundary signifies that becauseof the lack of additional external stimuli to activate a new partof the group memory, people tend to think inside the box,causing subsequent contributions to increasingly becomesimilar to previous contributions, thus yielding fewer newgood ideas (that is, the declining ratio of good ideas to thetotal ideas over time produces an ideation function with apositive but decreasing slope).</p><p>The endurance boundary signifies that because anindividuals mental and physical abilities diminish with effortover time, ideation abilities will then decline as ideationproceeds (that is if the ideation process were to continue fora sufficiently long time, then participants might lose the abilityto generate good ideas which leads to falling ratio of goodideas to the total ideas overtime and yields an ideation functionwith a positive but decreasing slope).</p><p>Although current e-brainstorming overcomes the spatialand distance limitation of conventional brainstorming withthe technique of electronic communication, all participantsmust still be present at the brainstorming session at the sametime to proceed with the discussion. With these advancementsSoe- Tsyr Yuan and Yen-Chuan Chen  developed agentbased ideation architecture and inference mechanism. To makean intelligent agent capable of generating ideas, thepreliminary work investigates three fundamental humansassociation capabilities (similarity, contiguity and contrast)during idea generation, implements these capabilities in anagents inference mechanism and unfolds the design of SILA,which performs idea associations based on a devisedontology-based representation of ideas. A SILA representsan ideation participant that can learn to understand the taskand adopt external stimuli, free from limits in working memoryand from attention exhaustion. Considering theaforementioned review of the brainstorming technique, thissystem aims at incorporating a modified agents based E-Brainstorming ideation model with an efficient OrientedDirected Acyclic Graph (ODAG) method used to constructthe ideation map for diverse ideas and their relationship andontology is improved to include privacy preferences Manju.S;Dr.M.Punithavalli (2012). This strategy provides privacy forall different groups. FOAF (Friend of a Friend) vocabularyretrieves the friends of a particular group. Access controllerenables access restrictions e.g. read and write. This Systemworks with intelligent agents based environment with privacy</p><p>1263</p><p>preferences and mapping is done with different domainsareas. The agents are filtered and grouped according to theirknowledge domain.</p><p>III. IDEATION MAP CONSTRUCTION</p><p>In the existing system, tree like ideation map wasconstructed in which the SILAs performed the associationswith respect to a given idea and then generated their creativeideas and it was termed as Ideation Round. In the proposedmodel, an efficient Oriented Directed Acyclic Graph (ODAG)method is integrated to construct the ideation map for diverseideas and their relationship .</p><p>A graph can be directed or undirected (no direction). Herean ideation map is constructed to improve both idea quantityand quality. Assume that, the given vertex as problem solvingstates or creative generated idea and arcs as the process ofproblem solving steps i.e. G= (V,A) will be represented ascollection of vertices and the collection of directed arcs thatconnects pairs of vertices with no path returning to the samevertex. This is referred as acyclic graph.</p><p>The ODAG algorithm is based on two sets of data, thefirst set represents the vertices in a one dimensional arrayvertex (V) where each item in the array is annotated with thecreative idea label (CIL), Round number (Rno), number ofparents (Np), creative value (Cv) and Weight (W).The secondset represents the arcs in 2-D array (V,V) where each item isannotated with the link 0 or 1 and the relationship is-a or part-of. In each round, the creative ideas are generated (parent)and it is allocated for generating creative idea instance invertex (V), and adjacency (V, V).</p><p>The vertex with the highest creativity value (CV) in theprevious round will be the initial states to the next rounds tillthe last rounds. Fig. 1 shows the generation of ideation mapusing ODAG structure i.e. process of all SILA requestor. Eachideation round has an input idea, as the association result.The initial idea is the input idea at round 1 and the creativeideas generated by SILA requestor in round 1(C1, C2, C3) isthe input idea at round 2 etc. Hence, the ideation map canprogressively be constructed through many ideation rounds.The process of linking among distributed knowledge hasan extreme importance in creative thinking and problemsolving. In this paper ideation map is constructed usingacyclic graph structure which elevates maximum quantity and</p><p> Fig.1. Ideation Map23</p></li><li><p>ACEEE Int. J. on Information Technology , Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec 2013</p><p> 2013 ACEEEDOI: 01.IJIT.3.4.</p><p>Short Paper</p><p>1263</p><p>creative quality of ideas from each ideation round.</p><p>IV. IMPROVED ONTOLOGY WITH PRIVACY PREFERENCES</p><p>In Agent-based E-Brainstorming, idea ontology was usedto map users knowledge with idea names and relationshipsbetween idea instances. It provided minimum privacy settingssuch as granting privileges to all people belonging to onesocial group to access their information. In this paper PrivacyPreference Ontology (PPO)  is used for participant tocreate fine-grained creative ideas. PPO is light weightvocabulary on top of the web access control (WAC) Ontologyaiming to provide access control privileges for specific datalike users personal information. Villata; Delaforge; Gandonand Gyrard  described lightweight ontology which definesfine-grained access control policies for RDF data . FOAF(Friend of a Friend) vocabulary is reused with agents toshare private data with similar groups or friends .</p><p>E-Brainstorming methods so far have lack of privacy whensharing ideas across different organizations. An analysis ofBrainstorming was done to gain more Knowledge aboutinnovative idea generation. By introducing PPO, accesscontrol privileges could be introduced to the users foraccessing data. WAC (Web Access Control) Vocabularydefines the read and writes access control privileges. Privacypreferences specify a protocol that enables the particulardatabase profiles to share their privacy policies with users.The privacy policies are expressed in xml which can be easilyparsed by user agents. The descriptions expressed usingthis protocol are text based and therefore do not contain anysemantics. This approach enables users to define what theprivacy preferences are about and hence facilitate othersystems to use such preferences. A vocabulary that describesaccess control privileges is the Web Access Control (WAC)vocabulary. This vocabulary enables owners to create accesscontrol lists that specify access privileges to the users thatcan access the data.</p><p>The WAC defines the read and write access controlprivileges for reading (Or) updating data and control privilegeto grant access to modify the access control lists. PrivacyPreference Ontology is a lightweight vocabulary on top ofthe web access control ontology aiming to provide userswith means to define fine grained privacy preferences forrestricting access specific data. Semantic web technologiesare used to enable privacy preferences. Open social networkscan contain users information using common vocabulariessuch as FOAF to describe the data.</p><p>Imagine a social group network where users could able tospecify which information can be shared only to somecontacts or friends i.e. the persons under social service. Thiswould make users feel more confident when publishing suchinformation without being concerned that it could be reused.Such a system will let users full control like who can accesstheir personal information and who can access their publisheddata. The data owners can specify a set of attributes whichrequestors must satisfy in order to be granted access to therequested information. For example a user can set a privacy</p><p>preference to share an e-mail address with in friends group.</p><p>A. Privacy Preference Idea OntologyPrivacy Preference Ontology provides privacy preference</p><p>for users data like access control, condition, access spaceand restriction. Here the Idea Knowledge Base is applied andit enfolds a collection of idea instances of different domainsto denote a clients knowledge. Privacy preference definessome properties to define, (1) which statement or resource isto be restricted. (2) Define conditions in order to create specificprivacy preferences . (3) Some properties to define whichaccess privilege should be granted for accessing clients database.</p><p>Using access control read and write authority is...</p></li></ul>
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