structural cable systems wire rod main cable steel wire (galvanized steel wire) paint cracks coating

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  • NIHONBASHI FRONT BLDG. 6-2 NIHONBASHI 3-CHOME CHUO-KU TOKYO 103-8306 JAPAN

    Structural Cable Department, Overseas Engineering Division PHONE: +81-3-6366-7733 FAX:+81-3-6366-6870 http://www.tokyorope.co.jp/

    1605-AVN

    While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained within this publication, the use of the information is at the reader’s risk and no warranty is implied or expressed by us with respect to the use of information contained herein. The information in this publication is subject to change or modification without notice. Please contact us for the latest information.

    TOKYO ROPE MFG. CO., LTD.

    TOKYO ROPE MFG. CO., LTD.

    Structural Cable Systems

  • 1 2

    We have manufactured PPWS since 1960's. In 90's, we challenged to apply our technology to the world longest suspension bridge, Akashi Kaikyo Bridge. We developed new product, called NEW-PWS, in the 1980’ s. NEW-PWS is specialized for stay cables, main concept is fully prefabricated parallel wire cable with high fatigue strength sockets and high density polyethylene sheathing. NEW-PWS has been applied to a lot of cable stayed bridges.

    Tokyo Rope is the leading company of structural cable systems.

    Akashi Kaikyo Bridge

  • PPWS Prefabricated Parallel Wire Strand PPWS consists of high tensile strength wires that are bundled in a hexagonal shape; sockets are fitted to both ends of the strand, and the strand is bound with a special plastic tape. Gauge wire measured based on the design length at stable conditions is arranged at a top of hexagonal section, and Red wire is arranged at the other top to check no twist during the erection.

    Erection of PPWS

    Socketing Reeling

    After all strands are in place, compaction work is carried out by squeezing machine with hydraulic jacks to be circular shape.

    After erection of deck, wires are wrapped on main cable for corrosion protection.

    Structural Cable Systems

    High Tensile Galvanized Steel Wire

    Major Applications

    Main cable for Suspension Bridge PPWS, Aerial Spinning

    Stay Cable, Hanger Cable NEW-PWS

    Property of Galvanized Wire

    Class of G.U.T.S.

    Range of tensile strength

    0.2% offset proof stress

    Elongation

    Ductility

    Zinc or ZnAl alloy coating

    1570MPa class

    1570-1770

    1770MPa class

    1770-1960

    1960MPa class

    1960-2160

    Torsion

    Winding

    Mass

    Adhesion

    75% of G.U.T.S.

    4.0% or more

    5mm: Min. 14 times / 7mm: Min. 12 times

    3d × 8 times, No fracture 300g/m2 or more

    5d×2 times

    G.U.T.S.: Guaranteed Ultimate Tensile Strength

    Cable bands and hanger cables are installed.

    The sockets at both ends are fixed at the anchor frames. The tension and sag are adjusted by pulling socket.

    Both strand ends are socketed by zinc-cupper alloy.

    The reeling methods are two ways.

    The strands wound on reel are set on the unreeler.

    3 4

    1 The strands are drawn from unreelers, and unreeled on catwalks by hauling systems.

    2

    3

    4 6

    5

    Red wire

    Gauge wire

    PWS-127

    Zinc-copper Alloy

    Galvanized wire

    Minami Bisan Seto Bridge

  • Structural Cable Systems

    High Elastic modulus

    NEW-PWS consists of parallel galvanized wires 7mm in diameter assembled while being twisted at a pitch designed to maintain optimum tensile strength and modulus of elasticity. E=196,000N/mm2(20,000kg/mm2) is secured even twisting.

    Excellent Corrosion Proofing

    High density polyethylene sheath is assembled to eliminate corrosion- proofing work. Polyethylene is resistant to acids, alkalis and other chemicals, and a carbon content of about 2%ensures greater weatherability.

    Standard Type of Socket

    High Fatigue Strength

    Sockets with high fatigue strength are developed for the stay cables. This socket called as "NS socket" is composed of zinc-cupper alloy and epoxy resin. Fixing mechanism of the NS socket consist of adhesion between wire and zinc-copper alloy and wedge effect of an integrated cone composed of wires and zinc-alloy.

    Aerodynamic Measure for mitigating the Rain Wind Vibration

    Small Drag Coefficient, even the surface treatment (Indented surface) is applied on the cable. Indented cable can achieve a counter measure without external damper against the rain wind vibration.

    5 6

    NEW-PWS NEW-PWS possesses all the superb characteristics of PPWS, plus good handling ability, excellent corrosion proofing characteristic, and high fatigue resistance socket for stay and hanger cable.

    Front bearing Middle bearing Nut bearing

    Drawing & fixing of dead anchor3 Tensioning4Setting a cable reel on Unreeler1 Unreeling of cable

    Indented cable: Cd≒0.7 (Cd=0.7 is the same as smooth cable)

    Applicable to color cable

    2

    Erection of NEW-PWS

    Twist Angle 3.5±0.5 deg

    Cable

    Heat-shrinkable polyethylene

    Caulking material

    Galvanized wire

    Zinc-copper Alloy

    Epoxy resin

    Socket

    Galvanized wire

    Filament tape

    Polyethylene layer

    40

    35

    30

    25

    20

    15

    10

    5

    0

    100%

    50

    0

    St re

    ss A

    m pl

    itu de

    (k gf

    /m m

    2 )

    R at

    e R

    es id

    ua l E

    lo ng

    at io

    n

    Results of fatigue test

    Results of whether-meter accelerated test

    100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000 Cycles

    2000 4000 6000 hrsElapse of Time

    0 0.1% 0.5%

    1.0% 2.0%

    More than 2% failuer Less than 2% failuer No failuer

    Polyethylene layer (Coloring)

    Tatara Bridge

    Carbon content

  • Structural Cable Systems

    Color Coated Structural Wire Rope “Tuff Coated Rope”

    Tuff Coated Rope has a high anticorrosive function due to two corrosion proofing layers, galvanizing and modified saturated polyester resin. Various color is available.

    7 8

    Structural Wire Rope Locked Coil Rope

    Type C

    ●Shaped wires (Z and T wire) are used in the outer layers. ●Rope itself has an excellent anti-corrosion performance. ●Endfitting is limited to socket type. ●Modulus of elasticity: ≧1.57×105N/mm2 ●Diameter 34~100mm

    Spiral Rope

    1×91

    ●The strength is higher than any other structural rope of the same diameter, except PPWS and NEW-PWS.

    ●Swaged socket is applicable up to 40mm ●Modulus of elasticity: ≧1.57×105N/mm2 ●Diameter 14~100mm

    Strand Rope

    7×37

    ●Good flexibility, Easy handling ●Swaged socket is applicable ●Modulus of elasticity: ≧1.37×105N/mm2 ●Diameter 9~71mm

    End fitting

    Exposure test at Mt. Aso.

    At first

    Socket Type

    Nut bearing socket Open socket

    6 months later 1 year later 2 years later

    Swaging Type

    Swaged socket with thread Fork end type swaged socket

    Locked Coil Rope Spiral Rope Strand Rope

    Tuff Coated

    Zn

  • Structural Cable Systems

    Corrosion Protection System for Main Cable

    The new corrosion system that gives longer service life to the main cable, the key components of a suspension bridge, consists of Galvanized wire + Wrapping wire + Heavy-duty corrosion protection coating.

    Wrapping Wire

    The new wrapping wire has an S-shaped sectional configuration, and its standard size is as shown in the figure below.

    This S-shaped wrapping wire prevents cracking of coating by mean of the effect of interlocking of turns. The adoption of coating agent having an excellent elongation performance prevents from cracking due to expansion of cables and at the same time prevents the infiltration of rain water and others.

    9 10

    Main Cable steel wire (galvanized steel wire)

    Coating Wrapping wire

    4.5mm

    3m m

    7mm

    S-shaped Wrapping Wire

    S-shaped Wrapping Wire

    Round Wire

    Manufacturing Process of PPWS, NEW-PWS and Structural Rope

    LD converter

    Ingot molding

    Continuoue casting

    Billet

    Material inspection

    Wire inspection

    PPWS

    NEW PWS

    Structural Rope

    Socketing

    Blooming

    Reheating

    Billet refining

    Roughing

    Drawing

    Coil

    Reeling plate

    Stranding

    Forming roller Stranding

    Finished Product

    Galvanizing

    Wire mounting frame

    Lead tank Washing tank Washing tankHydrochloric acid tank

    Surface treatment tank

    Preliminary take-up reel

    Finish roughing

    Wire Rod

    Main Cable steel wire (galvanized steel wire)

    CoatingPaint cracks

    Special anti-corrosion treatment

    Coating (elastic type)

    Wrappig wire Main cable steel wire (galvanized steel wire)

    Kurushima Bridge

    Wire

    Measuring gauge wire

    Wrapping filament tape

    Stranding

    Extruder

    Polyethylene coating

    Pretension and measuring

    Socketing Jack Socket

    Pre-load

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