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DESCRIPTIONStrategic Questioning. ‘The unexamined life is not worth living’ Socrates. Uncovering the Learning. ELIS Launch and Conference 6 th & 7 th Sep 2011. Karen Yager: Knox Grammar School & UNSW. Workshop Goals. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Masterclass: A Day with Dylan William
Strategic QuestioningUncovering the LearningKaren Yager: Knox Grammar School & UNSW
The unexamined life is not worth living Socrates.ELIS Launch and Conference 6th & 7th Sep 2011Workshop GoalsTo develop teachers self-awareness and analysis of their own questioning techniquesTo identify key features of good questioningTo identify and share effective questioning techniquesTo enhance the design of a quality learning environment through effective questioning
Culture of LearningBuilding a strong foundation in language, and enriching language learning for all.Learners are at the centre of the teaching-learning process (English Language Syllabus 2010).PhilosophyA means of making meaning and of communicationA system with its own rules and conventions which can be used to create various discourse forms or types of textsLearning involves cognitive and affective engagement, and interactionGuided by our awareness of the purpose, audience, context and culture in which the communication takes place.
EL Syllabus 2010A greater focus on oral communication (listening and speaking skills)Principles of EL Teaching: Learners are at the centre of the teaching-learning process.The teacher will provide a visually and experientially rich environment for communication that will explicitly foster listening and speaking skills and focus on the achievement of the Learning Outcomes.The Questioning GameThe rules of the Questioning game:You may only respond to each other with questionsNo pausingSome degree of congruency in discussion no non sequitursLoser knocked out, winner continuesHow did you feel?Anxious?NervousInsecure?Threatened?In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity. The important thing is not to stop questioning.Albert Einstein
Purpose of QuestioningDiscuss in small groups - what are the top five reasons for asking questions in the classroom?Use Activity Sheet 1
Purpose of QuestioningInterest, engage and challenge pupilsCheck on prior knowledge Stimulate recall and use of existing knowledge to create new understanding and meaningHelp pupils to extend their thinking from the concrete and factual to the analytical and evaluativeFocus pupils thinking on key concepts and issuesPromote pupils thinking about the way they have learnedPromote reasoning, problem solving and synthesisImprove listening and speaking skillsPitfalls of QuestioningWhat are some of the common mistakes in asking pupils questions in class? Discuss in your group and list five using Activity Sheet 1.
Pitfalls of QuestioningNot being clear about why you are asking the questionAsking too many closed questionsAsking too many questions at onceAsking difficult questions without building up to themAsking a question then answering it yourselfPitfalls of QuestioningTeachers ask up to two questions every minute, up to 400 in a day, around 70,000 a year, or two to three million in the course of a career. Questioning accounts for up to a third of all teaching time, second only to the time devoted to explanation. Most questions are answered in less than a second. Lower-order questions are often used as a means of control in the classroom.Steven Hastings, 2003
Asking bogus guess whats in my head questions.Focusing on a small number of pupils.Starting all questions with the same stem.Dealing ineffectively with incorrect answers. Not giving the pupils time to reflect or generate own questions.
Pitfalls of QuestioningWe often focus on knowing the right answer rather than asking the right question.Our assumptions about what matters in the classroom and about our pupils influences the way we design and deliver questions.Covering rather than uncovering! Content and recall focus rather than the art of uncovering new possibilities through dynamic questioning.
Pitfalls of QuestioningDesignTeaching is the art of asking questions Socrates.Questions are not just devices to evaluate specifics of learning but a means of actively promoting conceptual thinking, deepening learning and understanding.Questions can be more powerful than answers. Teaching is about designing the learning environment
DesignIt is about asking the right questions.Plan questions with others as you will always design questions that reflect the way you see the world.It is not the answer that matters but the discussion that is generated by the question.Complete Activity Sheet 2 and share your responses.
The first thing that teachers will need to do is select and organise the essential knowledge, understandings, skills and values from the syllabus around central concepts or ideas Quality teaching in NSW Public SchoolsDesigning the Learning17Without designing around provocative questions and big ideas, teaching easily succumbs into an activity - or coverage - orientation without clear priorities. Understanding by Design McTigh and Wiggins ASCD 1999Designing the Learning18Focus on learningWhat do the pupils need to learn? Why does it matter?What do they already know?How will they demonstrate learning?How will they get there?How well do I expect them to do it?
19DesignDecide in your group the five features of powerful questions.Use Activity Sheet 3
Highly Effective QuestionsSimplicity and clarityThought provokingGenerates curiosity and engagementChannels attention and focuses inquiryStimulates reflective thinking and conversationSurfaces and challenges assumptionsInvites creativity and new possibilitiesConnects to a deeper meaning and understandingEvokes more questionsTypes of QuestionsClosed questions: Require specific information which can often be answered yes or no. Open questions: Require deeper thinking about the answer by requiring pupils to generate divergent thinking and creative answers based on possible predictions. Hypothetical or scenario-based questions: Require a thoughtful and considered response. Active ListeningDo we really listen?Turn to the person next to you and find out what they did last weekend.The interviewee is to take note of the type of questions being asked.Report back to the group.
Synthesising Really listening to pupil responsesIdentifying relationshipsBuilding on pupil responsesConnecting pupil responses to make meaning and emphasis key points.This contrasts/compares with?What conclusion can we draw from?
TimeIncreasing the wait time improves the number and quality of the responses.Three seconds for a lower-order question and more than 10 seconds for a higher-order question.Stick-it notesExit questions Phone a friend
Question CycleAsk the question
Wait for 10 seconds
Simplify the question
Wait for 10 seconds
Discuss the question
Responses to incorrect answersThe teacher's positive response to both good and wrong answers is essential.Consider: facial, body and verbal responses.You can:Rephrase the question: Let me put it another waySeek clarification: 'What do you mean when you say ?Request for specific examples: 'Can you give me an example of this?Request for rephrasing: 'Can you put it another way?'
Assessment as LearningPupils gain a deeper understanding of their skills, knowledge, level of understanding and the expected standards through self and peer assessment.Pupils develop ownership of the learning process.They learn to plan for how to improve their skills and understanding.Design questions that facilitate self and peer assessment.Why, how, what if?...
Session 2:Ways to design effective questionsBlooms ModelC: What if? & Can you see other possibilities?E: Is there a better solution?AN: How was the setting represented?AP: Could you apply this approach to?U: Who is the main character?R: Can you name the?
Using Blooms ModelListen to the podcastUsing Blooms taxonomy, in groups devise questions that could be used in class to enrich the learning experience.
De Bonos Thinking Hats
S: What if I change or swap this?C: What can I blend or combine?A: What could I substitute?M: What will happen if I add?P: How could I use this somewhere else?E: What happens when I remove?R: What if I did this the other way?Activity Sheet 5
Thinkers KeysReverse Listing: Use cannot, never or not in the questionsWhat if?DisadvantagesCombination: Attributes of two dissimilar objectsVariations: How many ways can you?Question first: Then provide five answers
Williams Model - ExtendingParadox: Paradoxes can be used to evaluate ideas and challenge pupils to reason and find proof.Analogy: Pupils find the similarities between things and compare one thing to another.Discrepancy: Pupils should be challenged to discuss what is not known or understood.Provocative questions: These are questions that require thoughtful consideration to clarify meaning or develop new knowledge. Organised Random Search: Given a situation or body of knowledge, pupils search for other information to answer questions such as, what would you do or what would you have done? Tolerance for Ambiguity: Open-ended questionsIntuitive Expression: Empathy questionsEvaluative Situations: Evaluate solutions and answers in terms of their consequences and implications pose the question what if? Visualisation Skills: Provide opportunities for pupils to perceive or visualise themselves in many contexts.
Williams ModelView the film clipIn groups, use Williams model to develop a series of questions.
Langfords 5 WhysAsk a questionThis leads to a second questionAsk three more questionsProbes and deepens understandingThwarts superficial responses
Flip LearningPupils taking responsibility for their own learningProvide the content and resourcesPupils generate the questionsIf children aren't asking questions, they're being spoon-fed. That might be effective in terms of getting results, but it won't