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  • SO40CH04-Steinmetz ARI 21 June 2014 13:9

    The Sociology of Empires,Colonies, andPostcolonialismGeorge SteinmetzDepartment of Sociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109;email: geostein@umich.edu

    Annu. Rev. Sociol. 2014. 40:77103

    First published online as a Review in Advance onJune 5, 2014

    The Annual Review of Sociology is online atsoc.annualreviews.org

    This articles doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-071913-043131

    Copyright c 2014 by Annual Reviews.All rights reserved

    Keywords

    imperialism, territorial and informal empires, settler colonies, internalcolonialism, decolonization

    Abstract

    Sociologists are adding specic disciplinary accents to the burgeon-ing literature in colonial, imperial, and postcolonial studies. They havebeen especially keen to add explanatory accounts to the historical litera-ture on empires. Starting in the 1950s, sociologists pioneered the studyof colonies as historical formations. Against traditional anthropologicalapproaches, sociologists insisted on studying colonizer and colonized intheir dynamic interactions, asking how both groups were being trans-formed. Like contemporary postcolonial scholars, sociologists beganasking in the 1950s how metropoles were being remade by overseascolonialism and colonial immigration. Echoing discussions in the 1950samong sociologists working in the colonies, current discussions of post-colonial sociology question the applicability ofWestern social scienticconcepts and theories to the global South and ask how sociology itselfhas been shaped by empire. Current sociological research on empiresfocuses on six sets of causal mechanisms: (1) capitalism; (2) geopolitics,war, and violence; (3) cultural representations and subjectivity; (4) resis-tance and collaboration by the colonized; (5) institutional dimensionsof empires and colonies; and (6) conict and compromise among colo-nizers at the heart of colonial states.

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    INTRODUCTION

    For the past four millennia, world history hasbeen largely an imperial history, a historyof empires (Darwin 2008a, p. 491). Nation-states are a more recent invention. France, forexample, became a mere nation-state only in1962 when it gave up the last vital element ofits imperial structure, Algeria (Cooper 2005,p. 156). Ostensibly non-imperial nation-stateslike the United States have been informalempires, as many have argued (e.g. Mann19862012, Vol. 4).

    A recent bibliography covering just theBritish Empire runs to more than 1,000 pages(Porter 2002). Rather than trying to survey thisvast ocean of scholarship, the present reviewfocuses on the discipline of sociology. It is pos-sible, asMcLennan (2013) suggests, that sociol-ogy has something special to add to the study ofempires. At the very least, colonialism and em-pires have something to offer sociology, as sug-gested by Keller a century ago (Keller 1906).Sociologists cannot avoid empire, even thosefocused on the immediate present and the ter-ritorially domestic. For historical and transna-tional sociologists, empires and colonies areomnipresent, although theymay fade in and outof vision depending on intellectual fashion.

    Sociology came late to the study of empireonly because it was relatively late to emergeas an academic discipline (Goudsblom &Heilbron 2004). But since Auguste Comte(1851 [1929], pp. 12834) and Alexis deTocqueville (2001), sociologists have madeimportant contributions to these discussions.Between a third and half of the academicsociologists working in Britain, France, andtheir colonies during the 1950s were involvedin some form of colonial research (Steinmetz2013a).1 Sociologists played a central rolein the research on development and under-development that emerged in the wake ofdecolonization. Sociologists were among the

    1For the criteria and historical sources used here for de-termining membership in the sociology eld, see Steinmetz(2009a).

    rst to carry out comparative historical researchon colonies (Balandier 1955, de Dampierre1967, Hermassi 1972, Wallerstein 1959). Themost recent chapter in this story is the emer-gence of a historical sociology of colonialismand empire (Steinmetz 2013b) and a self-described postcolonial sociology (Magubane2013, Reuter & Villa 2009, Steinmetz 2006).

    In countries like France and Britain, sociol-ogists amnesia about their disciplines engage-ment in the colonial empires set in almost im-mediately at the endof the colonial era, as publicopinion and common sense turned against colo-nialism and empire. If colonialism and empirewere mentioned at all in sociological textbooksand encyclopedias in this period, they were usu-ally collapsed into economic imperialism. Cur-rent sociological research on empires, colonies,and postcolonialism is therefore emergingwithout much awareness of sociologys owntheoretical and empirical work in this area.This article is therefore an exercise in anamne-sia as well as a guide to future research on thesubject.

    Before proceeding, I need to dene a fewterms. The study of empires is distributedacross many academic disciplines, and it datesback to the Roman Empire, from which ourown imperial vocabulary is largely derived. Themoment we set foot in this conceptual terrain,we are already at the heart of a set of erce de-bates that began in the ancient world.

    DEFINITIONS

    Empire

    Empire is the overarching concept in all dis-cussions of imperialism and colonialism. Thenoun imperium originally signied the legiti-mate power of princes and ofcials to commandand punish their subjects (Weber 19211922[1978], pp. 650, 839). The idea of imperiumwas then extended by analogy to mean Romesright to command obedience from the peoplesit had subjected (Lieven 2000, p. 8). Duringthe medieval period, empire successively tookon three main meanings in Western Europe:

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    the German idea of Reich in the Holy RomanEmpire, the Carolingian sense of empire un-der Charlemagne, and the so-called universalempire of Latin Christendom (Lieven 2000,pp. 1317). In the nineteenth and twentiethcenturies, the term empire began to be used torefer to large territorial political organizationsforged by conquest and to the overseas posses-sions of a single state (Pagden 2003). France andBritain both referred to their overseas colonialdomains as their empires.

    In sociology, however, the word empirewas used after the 1960s mainly by special-ists in ancient or non-Western societies suchas Breuer (1987), Eisenstadt (1963), Giddens(1987), Gocek (1987), and Mann (19862012).Only a few referred to modern polities as em-pires (e.g., Nederveen Pieterse 1990).

    As dened here, empires are expansive, mili-tarized, and multiethnic political organizationsthat signicantly limit the sovereignty of thepeoples and polities they conquer. As Suny(2001, p. 25) writes, an empire is a particu-lar form of domination or control between twounits set apart in a hierarchical, inequitable re-lationship, . . . in which a metropole dominatesa periphery to the disadvantage of the periph-ery. We can disregard in the current contextall denitions of empire that sap it of its corepolitical meaning. At the borders of the empireconcept are the ideas of hegemony, great pow-ers, and international inuence (for a compar-ison of hegemonies and empires, see Go 2011,ch. 3).

    Imperialism

    The word imperialism was rst used todenounce Napoleons military despotismand was then applied to Napoleon III, toother nineteenth-century rulers, and to theentire British Empire (Knox 1998, Spann1923). In contrast to the word empire, whoseconnotations were still largely positive inthe nineteenth century, imperialism alwayssuggested illegitimacy and hubris. Disregard-ing metaphorical uses of imperialism we canidentify two main analytical denitions that

    emerged between 1900 and 1920. Hobson(1902 [1965]) dened imperialism as nancecapitals aggressive quest for overseas marketsand investments during periods of undercon-sumption. Schumpeter (1919 [1951], p. 6)countered with a denition of imperialism asthe objectless disposition on the part of a stateto unlimited forcible expansion.

    My own denition retains the original po-litical resonance of the word imperialism andrefuses to equate it with colonialism or capital-ism. Imperialism is a strategy of political con-trol over foreign lands that does not necessarilyinvolve conquest, occupation, and durable ruleby outside invaders. In this respect, imperialismis a more comprehensive concept than colo-nialismbecause empiresmay treat colonies notjust as ends in themselves but also as pawnsin larger global power games (Osterhammel2005, pp. 2122; Aron 1959 [2006]).

    Colony, Colonialism,and Colonization

    Colonialism is based on the Latin verb colere (toinhabit, till, and cultivate). The words colonyand colonization are thus clearly linked toRoman expansion and the gure of the Romancoloni (Weber 1891 [2010]). Because of theseagrarian origins, colony is often used to desig-nate a territory occupied by emigrants from amother country without any additional sug-gestion of conquest and foreign rule (GonzalezCasanova 1965, p. 28). Colonization refers thento migration followed by settlement and trans-formation of the landscape. But this cluster ofmeanings does not correspond to the modernunderstanding of colonial rule or colonialism.

    In contemporary usage, colonialism meansthe conquest of a foreign people followed by thecreation of an organization controlled bymem-bers of the conquering polity and suited to ruleover the conquered territorys indigenous pop-ulation. Colonialism is thus a narrower conceptthan imperialism. Colonialism always involvesthe arrogation of sovereignty by a conqueringpower, whose rule is presented as permanent,or as being limited only by a distant or vaguely

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    dened end point. Of course, sovereignty is notan either/or condition but a gradational one, asthe history of colonialism amply demonstrates,with its varying degrees of indirectness and in-formality and its insistent euphemization of for-eign rule. The actual life span of a colony is lessimportant to the denition of colonialism thanthe rulers understanding of the time frame.Most colonies delegate some aspects of every-day ruling to indigenous agents, which moder-ates the foreign sovereignty criterion to somedegree.

    The second characteristic of colonialism isthat the conquered population is congured asinferior to their occupiers in legal, adminis-trative, social, cultural, and/or biological terms(Burawoy 1974, p. 526). Chatterjee (1993) callsthis the rule of difference. All colonial states di-vide their subjects into different tribal or racialgroups in an effort to enhance control, but atthe same time the colonized are subsumed bythe colonial state under a single, overarchingcategory. As Suny (2001, p. 32) writes, At thebase of European self-understandings lay theunderlying problem of constructing and repro-ducing the categories of the colonized and thecolonizer, keeping them distinct, one inferiorto the other.

    Some colonies have shown greater exibil-ity with regard to the rule of difference, but thisrule was generally more rigid during the nine-teenth and twentieth centuries than in previ-ous centuries.TheSpanish encomienda system inthe Americas carried the obligation to convertthe people on it (Cooper 2004, p. 264), whichnarrowed the cultural distance between colo-nizer and colonized. Colonialism in early mod-ern French America was oriented toward thepossibility of full assimilation of Native Amer-icans, with their conversion to Catholicismand French civility (Belmessous 2013, p. 13).Japanese colonialism was oriented toward pan-Asianism, which undercut the severity of thecolonial rule of difference (Duara 2003, p. 99122; Chae 2013; Park 2005). All modernWestern colonies crafted and policed the rule ofdifference continuously and vigilantly (Stoler& Cooper 1997, p. 5), however, which pre-

    vented most colonized subjects from attaininglegal rights and status equal to their rulers. Eventhe supposedly assimilationist French Empireplaced limits on genuine assimilation. In a his-torical study of the training of Algerian teachersin French Algeria inspired by Bourdieus soci-ology of education,Colonna (1975, pp. 16869)showed that the colonial power placed a speciclimit on the path to acculturation, one that de-ned the quality of scholarly excellence as beingneither too close to the culture of origin nor tooclose to the culture of the West.

    The State in the Context of Empires

    The last third of the twentieth century saw akind of conceptual transubstantiation in the so-cial sciences whereby polities that historicallyhad been called empires were recategorized asstates. This happened as the great colonial em-pires were disappearing and nation-states werebecoming the default unit of organization forthe international system.

    States need to be integrated at several pointsinto the study of empires. First, most empireshave a state at their center (Schmitt 1941 [1991],p. 67). An empire can be pictured as a solar sys-tem in which the colonized peripheries circu-late around the metropolitan core, with grav-itational pull holding them in their orbits andbinding them to one another.2 The planets inthis imperial solar system also all possess statesof their own. These peripheral states take twodistinct forms. The rst is the colonial state, anadministrative apparatus for governing a colonythat sometimes enjoys considerable autonomyfrom its metropole (Blackburn 1988, pp. 7985; Han 2006; Laidlaw 2005; Steinmetz 2007).The second is the indirectly ruled native state.

    2The hub and spokes model of empire, in which colonies areimaged as equidistant from the hub, is in this respect lessapt (Motyl 2001) than the solar system model. The hub andspokesmodel is also rigid and static, whereas in a solar systemthe gravitational pull of rotating planets may dynamically af-fect other planets orbits and tides. In an empire construed asa solar system, the different planets all have their own life,their own summers and winters, rather than being fully de-termined by the central sun (Naumann 1915 [1964], p. 664).

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    Colonizers usually rely on some version of in-direct rule (Fields 1985, Gowda 2013). The in-directness here refers to the fact that the nativestate is ruled by the colonizing power partly byproxy through indigenous elites. States gure asthe historical origins and end points of empires,with nation-states acquiring and losing empiresor empires devolving into mere states.

    States often do similar things as empires (orempire-states; see Burbank & Cooper 2010,Kumar 2013, Steinmetz 2005). This is partlybecause states and empires are subject to sim-ilar external constraints, including pressuresfromgeopolitics and resource dependency.Thekey difference between empires and modernnation-states (or nationalizing states; Brubaker1995) concerns the treatment of territorial na-tives. Soon after annexing a new territory,an expanding nation-state typically begins todismantle legal, administrative, and citizen-ship differences between the conquerors andthe conquered. Empires preserve and rein-force such differences;modern colonial empiresmake these differences as rigid and asymmet-rical as possible. The main exceptions to theuniversalizing thrust of the nation-state werelocated at Europes peripheries (Bartlett 1993)and in the so-called internal colony, discussedbelow.

    Postcolonialism and Postimperialism

    Postcolonialism is an investigation into theways colonialism continues to shape formercolonies and metropoles and a new set of ap-proaches to understanding historical colonial-ism. Postcolonialism is not so much a periodiz-ing term as a stance of theoretical resistanceto the mystifying amnesia of the colonial after-math (Gandhi 1998, p. 4). Postcolonial stud-ies is an unusual eld in that it traces its lin-eage not just to academic theorists but also towriters of ction and poetry. Indeed, severalsociologists of colonialism (Georges Balandier,Michel Leiris, Orlando Patterson, and Leopoldvon Wiese) rst published colonial novels andthen switched to a more social scientic style.Two forerunners of postcolonial theory, Albert

    Memmi and Edouard Glissant, continued towrite ction while practicing social science.Postcolonial studies is one of the rare scien-tic domains in which the social sciences havecontinued to interact with the humanities evenduring the twenty-rst century.3

    Postimperial theory understands itself ascoming into existence in a historical dusk pe-riod in which an empires decline has not yetbeen accompanied by a lessening of its culturalpower. Indeed, imperial ideologies assume ex-aggerated forms in these transitional moments.Postimperial theory suggests that the imperi-ality of US culture is becoming more visiblein the waning days of the American Empire.Hell & Steinmetz (2014) tease out the impe-rial subtext of the postmodern urbanism cele-brated in Learning from Las Vegas (Venturi et al.1972) and trace the evolution of Las Vegassself-presentation from the self-condent par-ody of the Roman and European empires in the1940s1960s period to todays hulking displayof a fortied military empire in decline.

    IMPERIAL STRATEGIES ANDCONFIGURATIONS OF EMPIRE

    Empires usually combine different strategies ofdomination, resulting in hybrid political forma-tions (Steinmetz 2005).We can distinguish fourbasic imperial strategies: (1) premodern land-based empire; (2) modern territorial empire;(3) colonialism; and (4) informal, nonterritorialimperialism. The eighteenth-century AustrianEmpire is an example of a combined strategy:The Austrian Netherlands were treated in animperialist manner as a pawn in games of ter-ritorial barter, whereas Hungary was occupiedand governed like a colony.

    Historians study transitions from oneimperial conguration to another and

    3This comment is not intended to downplay the differencesbetween postcolonial theory in the humanities and the socialsciences, however, as Leela Gandhi pointed out in commentsat a panel on Steinmetz (2013b) at the annual meeting of theSocial Science History Association in Chicago, November2013. See Reuter & Villa (2010).

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    rearrangements in the relative importanceof different strategies within a given politicalconstellation. An example of predominantlycolonial strategies evolving into more impe-rialist approaches is the nineteenth-centuryBritish shift to an imperialism of free trade(Gallagher & Robinson 1953). The 1880s thensaw a movement back to formal colonialism byBritain and other European powers.

    Another imperial pattern involves charteredcompanies. Such companies were created byinvestors for trade, exploration, and exploita-tion throughout the medieval and modern eras.The most interesting cases, such as the DutchVerenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC)and the British East India Company, are char-tered companies charged with the political andrepressive functions of government. The for-mer company went bankrupt in 1800 and cededpower to the Dutch state, and the latter cededpower to the Crown in 1858 (Lardinois 2008).Between 1858 and the 1960s, most colonialstates were administered by agents of Euro-pean states, but some chartered companieswerecreated in this period. Concession companiesheld political power in German New Guineaand the Marshall Islands from the 1880s un-til 1900. The Belgian state assumed full ad-ministrative power over the Congo only in1908. The chartered Societe Nouvelle des Sul-tanats du Haut-Oubangui exercised de factocontrol over the governor general in the Frenchcolony ofOubangui-Chari beforeWorldWar I(deDampierre 1967, pp. 494505). Sovereigntyover Southern Rhodesia passed from CecilRhodess British South Africa Company to asemi-independent settler government in 1923.The last holdout was PortugueseMozambique,where private concession companies controlledalmost half of the territory until 1942.These arecases in which economic exploitation mergeswith political rule.

    Premodern Territorial Empires

    Ancient empires typically combined restlessexpansion and militarism with efforts to stabi-lize conquests, often by promising peace and

    prosperity in exchange for subjection and trib-ute (Mann 19862012, Vol. 1; Pagden 2003).One result of the endless waves of conquestand incorporation was that empires were oftenmulti-civilizational and polytheistic, preservingcultural difference (Burbank & Cooper 2010;for a contrary view of ancient empires seeGiddens 1987, p. 81). Weber (1891 [2010]) fo-cuses on the decline and fall of the Roman Em-pire and comparesmodern and ancient empires.Sociologists Breuer (1987), Eberhard (1965),Eisenstadt (1963), Freyer (1948), Giddens(1987), and Goldstone & Haldon (2009)analyze ancient empires in a broadly Weberianvein. According to Mann (19862012, Vol. 1)traditional empires were higher-order con-catenations of economic, cultural, military, andpolitical sources of power.

    Modern Continental Empires

    Modern territorial empires are also oriented to-ward the conicting imperatives of relentlessexpansion and stabilization of acquired lands.This pattern characterized the westward ex-tension of the Chinese Empire (Perdue 2005),the eastward expansion of the Russian Empire(Lieven 2000), and the creation of the UnitedStates through the incursion of European em-pires into the continent from several differ-ent directions (Taylor 2001) and the conquestof indigenous Americans. The Nazi Anschlussof Austria and Sudetenland in 1938 markedthe beginning of a new continental empire inCentral Europe (Mazower 2008). Nazi sociol-ogists such as Muhlmann (1944) contributedto plans to govern and selectively German-ize specic populations in the eastern occupiedterritories. Modern continental empires differfrom nationalizing states in their emphasis oncultural difference rather than cultural unifor-mity.4 Thus, ethnic Germans in Nazi-occupied

    4On evolving US state strategies of differentiating NativeAmericans fromUScitizens seemost recently Fixico (2012), astudy of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The BIA could befruitfully compared to European colonial ofces and colonialstates, whose main activity was also ruling over conquered

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    Eastern Europe were subjected to somethinglike a colonial rule of difference (Lower 2005,pp. 16279).

    Colonial Empires

    Colonial empires reveal ssiparous tendenciesand corresponding variation in the native poli-cies deployed in different times and places. Of-cials struggled continuously with one anotherin their efforts to dominate the administrativeeld of each colonial state and each metropoli-tan colonial ofce (Steinmetz 2008b, 2013c).Such divisions account for some of the inter-colonial variation in policy. These divisions atthe heart of colonial administrations explodeany premise of a singular ofcialmind of impe-rialism or a unied ofcialmind inside any par-ticular colony (Robinson & Gallagher 1961).

    At the same time these internecine struggleswere predicated on certain common values andassumptions, which included the shared recog-nition of the very existence of colonial statesand empires. Shared recognition of empires astotalities was based on various practices: visitsto outposts of the empires by monarchs andpresidents; the training of civil servants boundfor posts in different parts of a given empire inthe same classes at the Parisian Ecole coloniale orin the classes for colonial cadets at Oxford andCambridge; colonial career paths that circum-navigated the globe; and imperial navies, whosetravels limned the contours of empires. Colo-nial empires existed in the hearts and minds ofthe metropolitan populations despite their ig-norance of the details of empires (Ward 2001).There is increasing evidence that the BritishEmpire was situated at the very core of Britishself-understandings and traditional social struc-tures and that loss of the Empire had a hugedomestic impact. European colonial exhibitionstypically presented miniaturized versions of

    indigenous populations. The role of local BIA agents wasroughly the same as that of the British district commissioner,French commandant du cercle, or German Bezirksamtmann inthe colonies.

    each countrys colonial empire (Geppert 2010).For example, more than two million visitorsto the 1896 Berlin Trade Exhibition walkedthrough a landscape consisting of native villagesfrom each German colony, staffed by indige-nous people from those colonies (Steinmetz1993). Similar exhibitions were held in Britain,France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and else-where. Colonial empires were also representedas integrated wholes in popular culture via nov-els, lms, monuments, museums, toys, playingcards, and schoolroom curricula (Steinmetz &Hell 2006, Trepsdorf 2006).

    Early Modern Versus ModernColonialism

    The distinction between early modern andmodern colonialism corresponds to Europesgeopolitical pivot in the eighteenth centuryfrom the Western Hemisphere to Africa andAsia as the main focus of imperial attention,as well as the gradual shift away from colo-nial slavery to exploitation of African labor inAfrica (Blackburn 1997). In British history, thiscaesura is known as the imperialmeridian andas the transition from the rst to the secondEmpire (Bayly 1989, Darwin 2008b). The dis-tinction also captures a gradualmove away frommercantile colonialism and chartered companyrule and toward a convergence on the Spanishmodel of direct metropolitan state governanceover colonies. At the same time, there wasalso a reduction in the large-scale resettlementof foreign nationals in colonies, characteristicof early modern Spanish colonialism (Elliott2006). Most of the colonies founded after themid-nineteenth centurywere located in regionsdeemed unsuitable for European habitation orhad other barriers to settlement. Gann (1984,pp. 498, 502) points to twoother types of colonythat emerged in the modern era: the strategiccolony acquired for its real or assumed mil-itary and naval value, and colonies acquiredlargely as a matter of prestige such as theJapanese and to some extent the German andItalian colonial empires.

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    Settler Colonies

    In a settler colony, the indigenous populationis replaced by or subordinated to settlers and istreated as unequal in legal and administrativeterms.Wolfe (2006) argues that settler coloniesare inherently eliminationist: They seek tobreak down indigenous culture by seizing na-tive land and by assimilation, expulsion, or thecreation of remote reservations. Settlers oftenimagine the space they are colonizing as aRaumohne Volk (land without people) and invokesome version of the terra nullius doctrinetheidea that lands (andby implication economic re-sources) that are not being effectively utilized bythe indigenous population could legitimatelybe expropriated and developed by a superiorinvading nation (Lieven 2000, p. 4). Morebluntly, settler colonies embrace the notion thatthe European had a right which transcendedthe claim of the natives to occupy and exploittheir own resources (Frazier 1955, p. 84).Where there are no native inhabitants at all(whether due to expulsionor extermination),weshould speak of settler colonization rather thancolonialism.

    The very possibility of colonial settlementand the size of the settler population are deter-mined by colonial ofcials, who sometimes bansettlement altogether. Even in colonies wheresettlers outnumber other colonizers, the settlersare not necessarily dominant politically (Elkins& Pedersen 2005, p. 5).

    There is enormous variation in the long-term trajectory of settler colonies. Colonialrule and decolonization are usually moreviolent in settler than in non-settler colonies.Indigenous subjects may be isolated in hinter-lands, a pattern that exacerbates their economicunderdevelopment (Zureik 1979, p. 29). InAustralia, New Zealand, Palestine, and theAmericas, settlers gained independence fromtheir metropolitan rulers and assumed powerover the inherited state apparatuses. In sub-Saharan Africa, settler colonies ended throughsettler collective exodus (Veracini 2010,p. 106) and the political marginalization ofwhites.

    Internal Colonialism

    Some former settler colonies contain internalcoloniesindigenous populations subjected tothe states that surround them. The sociologistand Indian policy reformer Collier (1945,p. 265) analyzed US government treatment ofIndians as the longest colonial record of themodern world. Gonzalez Casanova (1965,p. 27) describes the shift fromSpaniards to cre-oles as the rulers of indigenous Mexicans as amovement from colonialism to internal colo-nialism.Hechter (1975) analyzes English incor-poration of the Celtic fringe as internal colo-nialism. Adam (1971) describes South Africaafter 1910 [when power was transferred to thewhite minority alone (Wolpe 1975, p. 231)]as internal colonialism. For Zureik (1979),Palestinians inside Israel are an internal colony,although as Adam&Moodley (2005, p. 1) note,there is an ambiguous point at which settlersthemselves become indigenous. Snipp (1986)introduces the concept of internal colonialismto the study of Native Americans. Oddly, scien-tic use of the concept of internal colonialismhas been almost entirely limited to sociology.

    The idea of internal colonialism seems tomake a useful distinction only where the an-cestors of current ruling elites arrived as colo-nial conquerors and where the internal colonyis descended from the natives conquered by theoriginal colonizers. But while autochthony isa dening feature of an internal colony, terri-torial concentration is not. Native Americanshave been forced off their land and scatteredthroughout the United States for centuries,but their current reservations are still internalcolonies.

    Informal, Nonterritorial Empires

    The type of empire that became dominantover the course of the twentieth century isinformal and nonterritorial (Mann 19862012,Vol. 4). International control is exercisedthrough military, economic, and other means,but there is no conquest or permanent seizureof political sovereignty and therefore nopossibility of systematically enforcing a rule of

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    difference. Informal empire is more coercivethan hegemony. An early example of informalimperialism is the pre-1918 Mitteleuropaproject for German dominion over CentralEurope (Naumann 1915 [1964]). Soon afterWorld War I, sociologists began discussing anew, highly elastic form of American impe-rialism in Latin America that leaves its victimswith the appearance of political autonomy andis satised with a minimal amount of politicalviolence (Salz 1923, p. 569; see also Gerth &Mills 1953, p. 205). Schmitt (1941 [1991],1950 [2003]) based his concept of an imperialGreater Space (Groraum) or nomos on theAmerican Monroe Doctrine, which he under-stood as a system for imposing US interestson Western Hemispheric states without rulingthem directly. Aron (1945, 1973) discussed theUnited States as an empire starting at the end ofWorldWar II. The dominion status of Canada,Australia, and other settler colonies repre-sented a half-way house between colonial andindependent status until the mid-twentiethcentury, when the Crowns power over theCommonwealth countries was radically re-duced (McIntyre 1999, p. 194). Technologiesof informal imperialism include manipu-lated market exchanges, extraterritorialityarrangements, black sites and extraordinaryrendition, drone strikes, and unequal militaryalliances and status of forces agreements. USgeopolitical primacy is grounded in a globalgrid of hundreds of semipermanent militarybases and an ever-changing array of temporarymilitary installations.

    Decolonization, Imperial Decline,and the Afterlife of Empires

    One of our cultures standard literary forms,Tilly (1997, p. 1) writes, is the dirge for a fallenempire. Empire builders have been obsessedwith imperial decline since the fall of Rome.They have concocted countless explanationsfor the seemingly inevitable downfall andrecipes for warding it off (Hell 2009). Until re-cently, however, social scientists have not paidas much attention to the unmaking of empires

    as to their acquisition, growth, and governance(Howe 1993). Some analysts attribute thedownfall of colonial empires to the Westerneducation of a minority of young men(Aron 1957, pp. 11.04-12) who led nationalistindependence movements. Others point towarfare, the postWorld War II downturn inEuropean economies, the Cold War and USand Soviet competition for African and Asianloyalties, empires economic overstretch(Kennedy 1989, Schafe 1887), and a growingopposition to empire in metropolitan publicsand government circles.

    World system theory (Wallerstein 1986) of-fers a systematic model of historical patternsof colonial conquest and decolonization andof the nineteenth-century shift from slavery-based colonial economies to the Europeancores exploitation of Africans and African re-sources within Africa. During nonhegemonicperiods, the core splinters and each rival powerclaims particular chunks of the global periph-ery, with which they set up exclusive, pro-tected relations of trade and resource extrac-tion (Bergesen & Schoenberg 1980). Whenthe core is hegemonized, the dominant powerenforces free trade and eschews protection-ism and colonialism; decolonization ensues.The empirical problem with this account isthat important colonies like Algeria and In-dia were annexed during the phase of non-colonial British hegemony. Furthermore, theUnited States actively supported European ef-forts to hold on to their colonies almost ev-erywhere except in South Asia until decolo-nization was a foregone conclusion (Louis &Robinson 1993). The Portuguese empire re-mained intact until 1974, and settler colonies inSouthern andCentral Africa lasted even longer.Nonetheless, world system theory provides themost complete answer yet to the problem ofexplaining global waves of colonial activity.

    Theories of the decline of land empiresare more diffuse. Ancient authors followedAugustines model of imperial wealth leadingto luxury, decadence, and weakness (Demandt1997, p. 225). Historians have offered hundredsof reasons for the decline of theRomanEmpire.

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    The bulk of Eisenstadts (1963) The PoliticalSystems of Empires concerns the perpetuationof ancient empires, not their decline, butelsewhere, Eisenstadt (1967, pp. 24) suggeststhat different premodern empires declined dueto the same cluster of determinants, includinggrowth of bureaucratic and rentier classes, de-cline in commerce and areas under cultivation,and a breakdown of political alliances betweenrulers and traditional elites. Most current workon the end of empires is multicausal; as Tilly(1997, p. 5) remarks, If empires have over fourmillennia been so. . .various, we are unlikelyto derive from their histories any constantsother than trivial ones.

    What about the afterlife of empires? Asnoted, this is a central preoccupation of post-colonial studies.This problem is also addressed,in very different ways, by neo-Marxist theoriesof dependency and neocolonialism. Hermassi(1978, p. 250) notes in this journal that thereis general agreement among theoreticians thatthe structural defects of peripheral economiesand societies result from their positions androles within the capitalist world system. Morerecently, Kohli (2004) and Mahoney (2010)nd that colonial state structures and policieshave a lasting impact on postcolonial economicgrowth. The aftereffects of colonial slaverycontinue to shape politics and inequalitiesin the Americas and Caribbean. If colonialmassacres do not have an easily measurableimpact on postcolonial economic performance,their legacies persist in less quantiable ways.In Namibia and Botswana, for example, theHerero continue to struggle politically and psy-chologically with the aftereffects of a genocidalwar that ended over a century ago (Durham1993). In Samoa, some institutions introducedby the German colonizers, such as the Landand Titles Court, have been maintained in thepostcolonial state (Steinmetz 2008b).

    THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVESON EMPIRE

    This section is organized around causal mech-anisms that have been proposed to explain

    various aspects of empires. These theoret-ical approaches cluster around six differentcausal mechanisms or sets of mechanisms:(1) capitalism; (2) geopolitics, war, and vio-lence; (3) cultural representations and subjec-tivity; (4) resistance and collaboration by thecolonized; (5) institutional dimensions of em-pires and colonies; and (6) conict and com-promise among colonial ofcials.

    Marxist Theories of Empire

    Marx was not centrally concerned withimperialism, but his work contains threerelevant arguments. First, Marx (1867 [1976],p. 929) insisted that capitalism could not beadequately analyzed on a national scale giventhe international character of the capitalistregime. Subsequent Marxists have followedLenin (1917 [1939]) in using the word im-perialism to describe capitalist globalization(Hardt & Negri 2000) or capitalism at itsmost advanced stage. Second, Marx actuallypraised imperialism as a modernizing force, anecessary evil. He criticized British colonialismin India but described its long-term impactas positive because it would unify the Indianstate and revolutionize the countrys moribundeconomic, social, and political structures (Marx1969). Third, Marx adumbrated a theory ofsettler colonization. The fact that the bulkof the soil in a free colony like the UnitedStates is still public property, because it hasbeen expropriated en bloc from its indigenousowners, means that every settler could turnpart of it into his private property and his indi-vidual means of production, thereby resistinghis own (re)proletarianization (Marx 1867[1976], pp. 934, 938).

    Marxs view of European colonialism as anecessary evil was rejected by most liberals andleftists (but see Warren 1980). For Hobson(1902 [1965]) and Luxemburg (1913 [2003]),imperialisms impact was as devastating for thecolonies as it was for metropolitan democraticpolitics. Hilferding and Lenin equated impe-rialism with the transformation of competi-tive capitalism into monopolistic nance cap-ital. Later Marxists reformulated these ideas

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    as the development of underdevelopment,economic dependency, unequal develop-ment, and unequal exchange (Bortoluci &Jansen 2013, pp. 21113).Reys (1973)model ofthe articulation of modes of production arguedthat colonialism reconstitutes and preservesprecapitalistmodes of production, thereby low-ering the cost of labor power (see also Alavi1975, Wolpe 1980). Wallerstein (1986) devel-oped world system theory partly to explain thefailures of postcolonial African development.This theory describes the global periphery asbeing condemned to produce raw materials forprocessing by the core.Wallerstein also tried toexplain the movement away from slavery in thenineteenth century and the repeated waves ofcolonialism and decolonization inworld history(see above). For Hardt & Negri (2000, p. xii),empire is no longer centered on a conquest statebut on a new global form of sovereignty com-posed of a series of national and supranationalorganisms united under a single logic of rule.

    Several imperial analysts have focusedon Marxs theory of primitive accumulation.Luxemburg (1913 [2003], p. 350) argued thateach new colonial expansion is accompanied,as a matter of course, by a relentless battleof capital against the social and economic tiesof the natives, who are also forcibly robbed oftheir means of production and labor power.For Lazreg (1976, p. 53), French colonialism inAlgeria led to the primitive accumulation ofland to make a settlement colony out of analready populated area. Harvey (2003) arguesthat accumulation by dispossession is notsimply a historical starting point for capitalismbut a recurring process that often takes animperialist form.

    Geopolitics, Warfare, and Violence

    Asecond set of approaches understands empiresas bathed in blood. These ideas were orthodoxamong the rst generation of central Europeansociologists. Gumplowicz argued that warfareis the compelling force in human history, andthat the racial struggle for domination wasthe pivot of all events in the historical pro-

    cess (Gumplowicz 1883, pp. 194, 218). Theculmination of historical processes of almostuninterrupted warfare (Gumplowicz 1883,p. 176) was the creation of states and empires.Schafe (1887, p. 148) agreed that states pursueexpansion for the sake of self-preservation.Ratzel (1923) grounded his analysis in asupposed general natural law, arguing thatall Volker are driven to expand and conquer.This tendency is strengthened, not weakened,in modernity: The more nations become con-scious of global spatial relations, the more theyengage in the struggle for space (Ratzel 1923,p. 266). Michels explained Italys turn towardcolonialism in North Africa in terms of popu-lation pressure, national pride, and the naturalinstinct for political expansion in the strug-gle for space (Michels 1912, p. 470; 1932,pp. 70810). Weber (19211922 [1978]) strucka balance between the opposing poles of theongoing debate, as usual, and attributed impe-rialism to archaic status elements, geopoliticaland military sources, and capitalism. Oppen-heimer (1926, pp. 789790) also combined themilitaristic theory of the state with a Marxistaccount of imperialism as capitalisms quest forforeign markets and surplus prots from theproletarians of foreign countries. Much later,Tilly (1990) followed the lead of Weber andOppenheimer in combining the Gumplow-iczian and Marxist causal mechanisms. Mann(19862012) added ideological power to thismix and divided Gumplowiczian power intotwo distinct forms, military and political.

    Sociologists often minimize the role of vi-olence in social life by scaling it down to theinterpersonal or micro level or turning it intoa dependent variable. The subeld of impe-rial studies wards off any temptation towardan ontological pacication of social life. Ac-cording to King (1990) and von Trotha (1994),the military barracks is the original unit ofthe colonial state. Settler colonialism, many ar-gue, engenders exterminationist dynamics. Vi-olence is at the heart of Schmitts (1941 [1991],1950 [2003]) theory of the state, empires,Groraume (greater spaces), nomos, and landappropriations. Colonial wars, Schmitt argues,

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    fall under a completely different juridical andcultural framework than the regular, bracketedwars inside the amity lines or the jus publicumEuropaeum of early modern international law(Schmitt 1950 [2003]). The geopolitical rule ofdifference unleashed massive violence againstnon-Europeans. Even the Hague and Genevaconventions were understood as not applyingto imperial warfare. Colonial wars regularlyrelied on declarations of martial law, emer-gencies, and states of exception (Furedi 1994).The end of the European nomos, according toSchmitt (1962b [2007]), unleashed this same vi-olence inside Europe. Modern imperial war-fare pioneered the use of weapons and prac-tices thatwere subsequently introduced into themetropoles (Graham2011):machineguns, dumdum bullets, aerial bombing, special riot polic-ing methods, and waterboarding. Imperial warsdiffer frombracketedwars in termsof the preva-lence of indigenous, guerrilla, and irregularcombatants; the escalation of violence; and theasymmetry of power (Schmitt 1962a). The dis-tinction between warfare inside and outside theamity lines has largely disappeared since 1914.

    Culture and Empire

    Colonial and imperial studies have long fo-cused on cultural representations and formsof subjectivity. The culture of colonizers hasbeen analyzed as a result of relations withother colonizers and with the colonized andthe colonial situation. Bartlett (1993, p. 313)concludes his study of medieval colonialismin Europe by observing that the mentalhabits and institutions of European racism andcolonialism were born in the medieval world:the conquerors of Mexico know the problemof the Mudejars. Seed (1995) analyzes thedifferences and reciprocal inuences amongSpanish, Portuguese, French, Dutch, andEnglish imperial ideologies and their role inceremonies of possession of colonies. Du Bois(1945 [1975]) sees modern racism as bothproduct and determinant of colonialism.

    Another body of research traces the impacton colonial rule of the colonizers culture. His-

    torians of Spanish and English colonialism inthe Americas have argued that Catholicism andProtestantism provided themain cultural frameof reference for colonizers and the source oftheir visions of the Americas as a sacred space(Elliott 2006). Blackburn (1997, p. 22) notesthat colonial planters in the Americas liked todistinguish different African peoples, to whomreal or imagined skills and temperaments wereattributed, and the mixed and mulatto popu-lations were elaborately classied; along withan overarching distinction between good andbad natives, these ideas informed slave own-ers practices. Streets (2004) reconstructs theimages of Sikhs, Gurkhas, and Highlanders inBritish military thought and shows how theyshaped imperial practice. Adams (2005) tracesthe effects of distinctive understandings of thefamily on the policies of Dutch colonial char-tered companies.

    Others have followed Saids (1978, p. 117)suggestive claim that colonies were createdfrom travelers tales, asking about the causalimpact of precolonial representations on colo-nial conquest and governance. Burke (1972,pp. 19394) demonstrates that French Berberpolicy in colonial Morocco was shapedby romantic stereotypes about AlgerianKabyle society, which led to policies aimedat preserving Berber from Arabizationand Islamicization. Steinmetz (2002, 2007)shows that precolonial European ethnographicrepresentations of the colonized provided theraw materials for all native policies in Germancolonies in Africa, Asia, andChina, even if thesetales were less uniform than Said suggestedand their impact on policy was mediated bythe colonial state eld (see below). Goh (2007)shows something similar for the colonial statesin British Malaya and the US Philippines.Wilson (2011, p. 1438) demonstrates that thediffering English systems for administering In-dians in Madras and Bengal were based on twodifferent visions of Indians as, respectively, es-sentially different from the British and fun-damentally similar to the British, and thesevisions shaped differing systems of revenueextraction. Researchers have also examined

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    the ways missionary societies and their speciccultures contributed to colonial hegemony,fueled anticolonial nationalism (Comaroff &Comaroff 1991, Leenhardt 1902 [1976]), orcontributed to the strength of democracy afterindependence (Woodberry 2012).

    Even more attention has been paid to colo-nialisms cultural impact on the colonized.Since the 1930s, social scientists have arguedthat colonized peoples selectively appropriatedand rejected different parts of the colonizingculture. Herskovits (1941, pp. 18485) showedthat the mixing of European and African tra-ditions was a fundamental. . .mechanism inthe acculturative process undergone by NewWorld Negroes, but he replaced the wordsyncretism with reinterpretation, denedas cultural borrowing that permits a peo-ple to retain the inner meanings of traditionallysanctioned modes of behavior while adoptingnew outer institutional forms (Herskovits &Herskovits 1947 [1964], p. vi).

    Mauss (1934 [1969], pp. 35354), whotaught all of the leading French colonial ethnol-ogists and sociologists during the interwar pe-riod, agreed with Herskovits that colonialismgives birth to new societies and here, as in thecase ofmetissage, this opens up an immense eldof observations. Mausss students studied thevarieties of cultural transformations resultingfrom colonialism. Leenhardt (1953, p. 213) in-terprets indigenous New Caledonian culture assyncretic and argued that colonial transcultura-tion ran in both directions between EuropeansandMelanesians.Maunier (1949, pp. 124, 535),author of The Sociology of Colonies, discusses thereciprocal imitation between the colonizer andthe colonized, developing a theory of colonialmixite as entailing the conversion of the con-queror by the conquered and its opposite. An-other student of Mauss, Devereux, opens hisfamous study of an individual Plains Indian byasking, [W]hat phase of Indian culture comesinto contact, and clashes, with what particu-lar segment of American culture and by an-alyzing the syndrome of ctitious superior-ity over the Indian among frontier Whites(Devereux 1951, pp. 8, 10). Bastide (1960) de-

    velops a dynamic sociology of the interpen-etration of civilisations, arguing that indige-nous culture accepted some aspects of Euro-pean culture and resisted others and that thestudy of counter-acculturation (Bastide 1948,p. 4) was the proper terrain of sociology in con-trast to ethnology. Soustelle (1943, p. 117) com-pares the Lacandon Indians, a Mayan groupthat had remained relatively untouched anduninuenced by the Europeans, with theMexican Otomi Indians, who were not somuch renouncing their old beliefs as incor-porating them into a new, syncretic culture(Soustelle 1971, p. 137). Balandier & Mercier(1952, pp. 212, 131) explain that theLebou peo-ple of Senegal ltered andmeasured the out-side inuences coming fromother cultures, in-cluding the colonial state, playing a game ofconservation and innovation. Bourdieus so-ciological career begins in the same late colonialcultural context studied by other mid-centurycolonial social scientists. Bourdieu is interestedin understanding how the colonized respond tothe colonial environment either by identica-tion and adjustment to its demands or by resis-tance and refusal.5 Parallel lines of discussionoccurred among British colonial sociologists.ForWorsley (1957), cargo cults represent sym-bolic rejections of colonialism. Mitchell (1956,p. 12) argues that Africans on the RhodesianCopper Belt used European signiers as at-tempts to cross insurmountable barriers, as itwere, in fantasy.

    Psychoanalysis has sometimes been criti-cized as a colonial practice (Brickman 2003),but this is misleading. First, Freuds argumentsabout the primitive drives at the heart ofmodern civilization were anathema to colo-nial racists, as was his belief in universal psy-chic structures. Second, practicing analysts in

    5Mead (2013) develops a convincing argument for over-all continuity in Bourdieus theoretical problematic startingwith his earliest Algerian work. Specically, Bourdieu is con-cerned to develop a theory of habitus as generated throughselective identication with (rather than passive imitation of)parts of the social environment and as conferring a deep prac-tical social knowledge that allows agents to position them-selves in social space and to respond to novel situations.

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    colonial settings were often highly critical ofcolonialism (e.g., Devereux 1951, Fanon 1952[1967]). Third, as a powerful theory of affectand the embodiment of social structures, psy-choanalysis is well suited for understanding theunconscious sources of the hyperbolic racism,sadism, and even fascist temptation (Memmi1957 [1967], p. 62) associated with coloniz-ers activity. Steinmetz (2007) deploys Laca-nian concepts to argue that colonizers formedimaginary identications across the colonizer-colonized boundary and that these identica-tions sometimes shaped policymaking. Psycho-analysis can shed light on the self-doubt andpsychopathologies that plague colonizers andcolonized (Fanon 1952 [1967], Mannoni 1950[1956], Nandy 1983, Sachs 1937), and on theambivalence and fragility of colonial domina-tion per se (Bhabha 1994).

    Influence of the Colonizedon Colonial Rule: Resistanceand Collaboration

    A large literature, overlapping with thatdiscussed in the preceding section, focuses onresistance, collaboration, and other practicesof the colonized insofar as they shape andare shaped by empire. Sociologist Montagne(1936) contrasts the varying ability of differentindigenous peoples to resist the onslaughtof colonization. Balandiers (1955) Sociologieactuelle de lAfrique noire traces the differingresponses to colonialism by the GaboneseFang and French Congolese Bakongo to a mixof internal and European-induced factors. TheFang had become unemployed conquerorslacking central leadership and were less ableto resist French incursions. The Bakongo hadbeen involved in the slave trade and were morerooted in their territory, hierarchically orga-nized, and acquainted with other tribes andwere better able to resist the French (Balandier1955, pp. 35455). de Dampierre (1967)analyzes the transformations that precolonialconquests and French colonialism broughtto three Bandia kingdoms in what is now theCentral African Republic. He shows that the

    Nzakara tried to defend their traditions but ulti-mately saw their culture destroyed, whereas theculturally similar Vungara dynasties in centraland eastern Zandeland succeeded in adaptingto the modern colonial world (de Dampierre1998). British sociologists followed Gluckman(1954) in examining rituals of rebellionand cultural appropriations from Europeans(Mitchell 1956). In his London School ofEconomics sociology dissertation, Patterson(1967) discusses Jamaican slaves resistance andcoping strategies, which included refusal towork, running away, satire, and suicide.

    Several North American sociologists havealso analyzed resistance by colonized people.Fields (1985, p. 99) traces the evolution of theWatchtower religion into an ideology of anti-colonial revolution in British Central Africa.Bunker (1983, 1991) demonstrates that Gisupeasants in Uganda used the threat of with-drawal from coffee production in favor of sub-sistence farming in order to pressure colonialand postcolonial governments. Ramos (2006)studies aboriginal protest in Canada. Goh(2007) and Go (2008a) argue that colonizedgroups are sometimes able to shape and redirectcolonial policies. Fenelon (1998) presents a ty-pology of forms of Native American resistanceranging from conformity to rejection, with in-termediate practices such as the nineteenth-century Ghost Dance (see also Hall & Fenelon2009). A burgeoning literature traces the waysNative Americans and other colonized peoplesempowered themselves by emulating Euro-American practices of violent conquest andslave trading (Gallay 2003, Hamalainen 2008)and took advantage of the conicts amongcompeting colonial powers and the border-land spaces between empires (Adelman & Aron1999, Hamalainen & Truett 2011).

    Nationalism has been causally connectedto empires. The earliest forms of nationalismemerged in the administrative units of theAmerican colonial states, where creole func-tionaries found their careermovements barredlaterally and vertically. Indian nationalismwas also nurtured by colonial administra-tive-market unication, after the Mutiny

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    (Anderson 1983, p. 64).The popular and ofcialnationalisms of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe arose in a context of competingland empires (Anderson 1983, ch. 6; Charle2001). Nationalism in newly decolonized stateswas frequently a reconguration of indigenousculture in opposition to foreign rule (Busia1956, p. 5; Hermassi 1972; Wyrtzen 2013). AsAminzade (2013) shows, however, nationalismwas not the only formof political culture used tounify former colonies following independence.

    The Cambridge School of historiographydepicts Indian and African collaboration asan important source of the colonial conquest.Robinson & Gallagher (1961) argue that im-perialism was the product of pressures withinoverseas and not within Western societies(Stokes 1969, p. 287). Robinsons (1986) so-called ex-centric approach to imperial historyaccounts for patterns of colonial rule and decol-onization in terms of actors and interests in theperiphery. This approach is now widely seen asbeing too mechanical and hostile to questionsof ideology (Dubow2009, p. 4), but it had a pos-itive impact in focusing attention on the causalimpact of colonized peripheries in shaping thecourse of empire.

    The Subaltern School of historiography,founded by Guha (1997), emerged within thesubeld of South Asian history and has in-tersected since then with postcolonial studies(Prakash 1992). This approach also emphasizesa colony-centric approach to empire, but it re-jects the Cambridge Schools emphasis on na-tive elites, focusing instead on the subjectivityand action of non-elites. The politics of subal-tern colonized people, according to these histo-rians, partially eluded control by both theEuro-pean colonizers and the native elites. Religion,community, ethnicity, kinship, and territorial-ity provided resources for assertions of differ-ence and self-determination.

    The Organization and Policies of theColonial State as Causal Powers

    A nal set of approaches looks at the insti-tutional framework and internal dynamics of

    colonial states or wider imperial structures asdeterminants of indigenous practices and thelong-term trajectories of empires. In somerespects, this turns the object treated as adependent variable in the previous section intoan independent variable. Mitchell (1988, p. xi)makes the general observation that colonialsubjects and their modes of resistance areformed within the organizational terrain of thecolonial state. The most important aspect ofthis organizational state terrain was so-callednative policy, that is, government programsoriented toward regulating indigenous lifeand subjectivity. All colonial rulers tried todivide colonized groups against one anotherby governing them through distinct legal andpractical frameworks. Native policies evolvedover time (Evans 1997) and often lurched fromone extreme to the other (Steinmetz 2007).

    A careful examination of modern colonialhistory reveals that the vaunted distinctionbetween indirect and direct rule mapped onlyloosely onto actual governing practice. Indirectand direct rule mark two extreme poles in amultidimensional space of policies in whichindirect approaches to colonial statecraft havealways been dominant (even in the Frenchempire). Full-scale assimilation for all but ahandful of natives was precluded because thelegitimacy of foreign sovereignty would beundercut if too many natives were recognizedas equal to their conquerors. At the otherextreme, governance exclusively by agents ofthe conquering power is usually impracticable,leading colonial governments to subcontractrule to indigenous actors.

    Divide and conquer policies are under-written by distinct programs of native policydirected at specic tribes or different groupswithin a given colony. Even while differenti-ating among indigenous groups, colonial statessimultaneously lump all of the colonized intoa single, overarching category. The tensionbetween the splitting and lumping approachesthreatens every colonial regime. As Van denBerghe (1970, pp. 8990) argues, overly rigidcolor bars could create a common interestin radical change among all strata of the

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    colonized. Conversely, the proliferation ofethnic differences hindered colonial era de-velopment projects (Schuknecht 2010) andpostcolonial development (Avineri 1972,Lange 2009) and sowed the seeds of inter-ethnic conicts (but see Barkey 1997, p. 103).

    Autonomy from the metropole is anotherkey dimension of colonial states, even if theirautonomy is always partial. Autonomy is a pre-requisite for even speaking of colonies as havingstates. At one extreme, colonies merely exe-cute metropolitan directives. At the oppositeextreme are some settler states with few restric-tions on their autonomy (Blackburn 1988, p. 70;1997, p. 9; Fernandez-Armesto 1987, p. 182).In other colonies, the governor and localofcials rule over settlers and natives alike andare independent enough to implement policiesthat meet with disapproval in metropolitanministries and parliaments or contradictmetropolitan economic interests. The auto-nomy theme also informs Eisenstadts (1963)principal-agent account of traditional empires.

    States that are direct descendants of coloniesor empires often reproduce inherited adminis-trative procedures, institutional structures, andpolitical categories (Mathur 2010). Some post-independence states perpetuate the basic con-stitutional and organizational structure of thecolonies from which they are descended (Go2010).

    Other structural features of colonial statesinclude their size, level of bureaucratization,capacity to penetrate society, and number anddenition of different departments. Some colo-nial states had just a handful of ofcials, es-pecially before the 1940s, but by the 1950smany African colonies had thousands of civilservants. Twentieth-century colonial states be-came ever more bureaucratized (Evans 1997).Colonial state capacity was a function not nec-essarily of size but of the skillful and sometimesbrutal use of resources, as demonstrated by thenotorious German military campaign in EastAfrica during World War I.

    Several historical sociologists of empire havedrawn on neo-institutionalist theory and net-work methods. Indeed, social network analysis

    rst emerged in the work of colonial sociolo-gists John Barnes and J. Clyde Mitchell (Scott2004, p. 688). Adams (1996) argues that the net-work structure linking the metropolitan princi-pals of chartered East India companies in Asiaduring the seventeenth and eighteenth cen-turies with their agents in the colonies shapedthe degree to which the former could con-trol the latter. Barkey (1994) draws on neo-institutionalism to show how the Ottomanempire-state managed its relations with ban-dits through deals and patronage. Elsewhere,Barkey (2008) draws on Motyls (2001) hub-and-spoke model to explain the Ottoman Em-pires ability to persist over centuries.

    A different approach to empires andcolonies is rooted in Bourdieusian eld theory(Bourdieu 2013). If the metropolitan state isanalyzed as a eld or set of elds, as Bourdieu(1999, 2014) suggested, then overseas colonialstates may also represent distinct eld-likeformations, characterized by particular formsof relative autonomy from the metropolitanstate and from other elds in the colony,and by competition among colonial stateagents for distinctive forms of symbolic capital(Bazenguissa-Ganga 1997, Steinmetz 2008b).Colony and metropole are linked by additionaltransnational elds, such as scientic or culturalones (Steinmetz 2013a). Field theory can alsobe extended to make sense of intra-imperialrelations (Go 2008b, Steinmetz 2013c).

    Conjunctural Causationin Imperial History

    The above section presents causal mechanismsseparately, but it should be read with the caveatthat the best research on empires (or any otherobject of social analysis) avoids the temptationto reduce history or social science to single-factor explanations or general laws (Boutroux1874, Durkheim 1888, Steinmetz 1998). Mostcurrent historical research in sociology oncolonialism and empire is oriented towardcontingent, conjunctural causal interpretationsand models. The important precursors of thisresearch have been overlooked in most recent

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    accounts. Hermassi (1972) focuses on thestructure of the colonial elites in North Africa,as well as on the differing lengths of colonialoccupation, the character of native policies, andthe strength of the precolonial autochthonousstate, in making sense of the nationalistmovements in French North Africa. Patterson(1967, pp. 27576) argues that Jamaicasgreater record of slave revolts relative to otherparts of the colonial New World was due to thehigh absenteeism of whites and the resultinglaxness of control, as well as to the greater ratioof slaves to masters and the large number ofslaves whowere born freemen, particularly tothose from the highly developed militaristicAkan regimes. Other book-length imperialstudies by historical sociologists that adhere toa methodology of contingent and conjuncturaldetermination include Adams (2005), Ayala(1999), Barnes (1954), Bunker (1991), Colonna(1975), Decoteau (2013), de Dampierre (1967),Erikson (2014), Evans (1997), Fields (1985),Gilette & Sayad (1976), Go (2008a), Gosselin(2002), Lange (2009), Mahoney (2010), Mann(19862012), Masqueray (1983), Mawani(2009), Norton (2012), Park (2005), Reader(1961), Saada (2007 [2012]), Sayad et al.(1991), Steinmetz (2007), and Weber (1891[2010]). Taken together, these studies providea solid basis for the further development of thehistorical sociology of colonialism, empires,and postcolonialism.

    ISSUES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    Sociological work on empires and colonialism isa vibrant subeld that interacts withmany otherdisciplines and continues to generate new theo-retical, empirical, and methodological insightsand puzzles. Some of the emerging themes inthis research domain that have not been dis-cussed thus far include interactions among dif-ferent European empires (Lindner 2011), im-perial urbanism (Clarno 2013, Graham 2011,Hell & Steinmetz 2014, King 1990, Pula 2013,Wright 1991), gender and familial relations andideologies in imperial settings (Charrad 2001,Saada 2007 [2012], Wang & Adams 2011),

    postcolonial culture and literature (Ducournau2012), imperial violence (Lazreg 2008), andnew technologies of geopolitical domina-tion (Bergesen 2013, Mann 2013, Scheppele2013).

    I conclude with a discussion of postcolonialtheory, which originated in the humanities andhas been gaining ground in sociology since thebeginning of the 1990s. After an original re-ception that often assimilated postcolonialisminto existing sociological endeavors such as thestudy of migration and multiculturalism, fourdistinct postcolonial approaches have provento be especially relevant to sociology (seeBortoluci & Jansen 2013). I have alreadydiscussed the rst two of these. The rstasks how empires were shaped by Europeanethnography, racism, social ontologies, andother aspects of culture. The second plumbsthe ambivalences of the colonizer-colonizedrelationship and the forms of colonial hybridity.

    A third strand of postcolonial analy-sis (Chakrabarty 2000) criticizes Westernknowledge as inadequate for the task of under-standing (post)colonized non-Western culturesor even as hostile to the very existence of thenon-West. In essence, this was the argumentof German Romanticism starting with Herder(1784 [1985]) in the eighteenth century andcontinued by the Kulturkreis (cultural circles)school in Central European anthropology acentury later (Mancini 1999). This critique ofuniversal categories reached an apotheosis withinterwar German neohistoricist sociologists(Steinmetz 2010), some of whom arguedthat all social scientic categories had to beunique to a single time and place (Freyer1926). Postcolonial theory is in this respect aradicalized historicism, inspired by Nietzsche(via Foucault; see Said 1978) and Heidegger(see Chakrabarty 2000). Connell (2007) arguesfor a Southern sociology; Santos (2012) arguesagainst what he calls epistemicide and in favorof an epistemology of the South. Chibber(2013) rejects this line of reasoning, counteringthat capitalism is indeed universalized and thatit can be analyzed using the same concepts inthe global South and the global North.

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    A nal strand of postcolonial research is in-spired by the insights of Hobson (1902 [1965])and Luxemburg (1913 [2003] pp. 14348, 646)concerning imperial blowback and Fanons(1961 [2004], p. 58) claim that Europe isliterally the creation of the Third World.Sociologist de Dampierre (1968) argues fortreating the European, even metropolitancontext, in counterpoint with the Africancontext. This idea of a contrapuntal readingof the cultural relations between colony andmetropole is at the heart of Saids (1993) foun-dational study of post-colonial methodology,Culture and Imperialism. Colonialism, Hall(1996, p. 246) writes, was never simply exter-nal to the societies of the imperial metropolisbut was always deeply inscribed within them.Historians have shown how empires recong-ured domestic culture and politics. Postcolonialcritics initially focused on metropolitan highculture (Gilroy 1993, Said 1993, Spivak 1988).Sociologists have long studied the reux ofcolonial culture back into the metropoles. The1950s saw a wave of sociological studies oftransnational colonial immigrants in Britain(e.g., Banton 1955; Braithwaite 2001; Collins1951, 1952; Ndem 1956; Silberman & Spice1950) and an analysis of metropolitan racerelations using colonial categories (Rex 1959,p. 124). May & Cohen (1974, pp. 112, 124)explore the causal interconnection betweenracism in England and the contradictionsinherent in the maintenance of the colonialorder. Magubane (2004) argues that images ofcolonized male bodies provided a stock set ofimages and metaphors that were introducedinto metropolitan debates about poverty and

    citizenship. Other sociologists have lookedat the afterlives in colonialism as expressedin monuments, visual culture, language, col-lective memory, melancholia, and nostalgia(Gilroy 2005, Hall & Rose 2006, Steinmetz2008a, Steinmetz & Hell 2006, Trepsdorf2006).

    Related to the third and fourth strands is aliterature that develops a self-critique of soci-ology itself as a product of empire (Bhambra2007, Kemple & Mawani 2009, Khalaf 1979,Wallerstein 1991). Alatas (2003), Berque(1962), Bourdieu (1976), and Stavenhagen(1971) call for a decolonization of the discipline(see also Connell 1997, Costas 2007, GutierrezRodrguez et al. 2010, Magubane 2013, Reuter& Villa 2010, Seidman 2013, Steinmetz 2006).To avoid false generalizations, however, itis crucial to conduct more systematic andcareful empirical research on the variety ofways sociologists have actually interacted withcolonial governments and funding agencies(Steinmetz 2009a, 2013a). After all, empirehad just as many opponents among the ranksof early professional sociologists, starting withHobson (1902 [1965]), Du Bois (1915), and theAnti-Imperialist League, an organization de-scribed by Small (1916, p. 775) as a precursor ofthe American Sociological Society. Bourdieuswork on the relative autonomy of culturalelds, which is inspiring some of the mostinteresting research in sociology today, is a keyresource for preventing postcolonial sociologyfrom falling back into reectionist or one-sidedly short circuit externalist approachesto the sociology of knowledge (Bourdieu et al.1968 [1991], Camic & Gross 2001).

    DISCLOSURE STATEMENT

    The author is not aware of any afliations, memberships, funding, or nancial holdings that mightbe perceived as affecting the objectivity of this review.

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    J. Sociol. 116(5):143777Wolfe P. 2006. Settler colonialism and the elimination of the native. J. Genocide Res. 8(4):387409Wolpe H. 1975. The theory of internal colonialism: the South African case. In Beyond the Sociology of Devel-

    opment: Economy and Society in Latin America and Africa, ed. I Oxhaal, T Barnett, D Booth, pp. 22952.London: RKP

    Wolpe H, ed. 1980. The Articulation of Modes of Production: Essays from Economy and Society. London: RKPWoodberry RD. 2012. The missionary roots of liberal democracy. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 106(2):24474Worsley P. 1957. The Trumpet Shall Sound: A Study of Cargo Cults in Melanesia. London: MacGibbon & KeeWright G. 1991. The Politics of Design in French Colonial Urbanism. Chicago: Univ. Chicago PressWyrtzen J. 2013. National resistance, amazighite, and (re-)imagining the nation in Morocco. In Revisiting the

    Colonial Past in Morocco, ed. D Maghraoui, pp. 18499. New York: RoutledgeZureik E. 1979. The Palestinians in Israel: A Study in Internal Colonialism. London: RKP

    www.annualreviews.org The Sociology of Empires and Colonialism 103

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  • SO40-FrontMatter ARI 8 July 2014 6:42

    Annual Reviewof Sociology

    Volume 40, 2014Contents

    Prefatory Chapter

    Making Sense of CultureOrlando Patterson 1

    Theory and Methods

    Endogenous Selection Bias: The Problem of Conditioning on aCollider VariableFelix Elwert and Christopher Winship 31

    Measurement Equivalence in Cross-National ResearchEldad Davidov, Bart Meuleman, Jan Cieciuch, Peter Schmidt, and Jaak Billiet 55

    The Sociology of Empires, Colonies, and PostcolonialismGeorge Steinmetz 77

    Data Visualization in SociologyKieran Healy and James Moody 105

    Digital Footprints: Opportunities and Challenges for Online SocialResearchScott A. Golder and Michael W. Macy 129

    Social Processes

    Social Isolation in AmericaPaolo Parigi and Warner Henson II 153

    WarAndreas Wimmer 173

    60 Years After Brown: Trends and Consequences of School SegregationSean F. Reardon and Ann Owens 199

    PanethnicityDina Okamoto and G. Cristina Mora 219

    Institutions and Culture

    A Comparative View of Ethnicity and Political EngagementRiva Kastoryano and Miriam Schader 241

    v

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  • SO40-FrontMatter ARI 8 July 2014 6:42

    Formal Organizations

    (When) Do Organizations Have Social Capital?Olav Sorenson and Michelle Rogan 261

    The Political Mobilization of Firms and IndustriesEdward T. Walker and Christopher M. Rea 281

    Political and Economic Sociology

    Political Parties and the Sociological Imagination:Past, Present, and Future DirectionsStephanie L. Mudge and Anthony S. Chen 305

    Taxes and Fiscal SociologyIsaac William Martin and Monica Prasad 331

    Differentiation and Stratification

    The One PercentLisa A. Keister 347

    Immigrants and African AmericansMary C. Waters, Philip Kasinitz, and Asad L. Asad 369

    Caste in Contemporary India: Flexibility and PersistenceDivya Vaid 391

    Incarceration, Prisoner Reentry, and CommunitiesJeffrey D. Morenoff and David J. Harding 411

    Intersectionality and the Sociology of HIV/AIDS: Past, Present,and Future Research DirectionsCeleste Watkins-Hayes 431

    Individual and Society

    Ethnic Diversity and Its Effects on Social CohesionTom van der Meer and Jochem Tolsma 459

    Demography

    Warmth of the Welcome: Attitudes Toward Immigrantsand Immigration Policy in the United StatesElizabeth Fussell 479

    Hispanics in Metropolitan America: New Realities and Old DebatesMarta Tienda and Norma Fuentes 499

    Transitions to Adulthood in Developing CountriesFatima Juarez and Cecilia Gayet 521

    vi Contents

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  • SO40-FrontMatter ARI 8 July 2014 6:42

    Race, Ethnicity, and the Changing Context of Childbearingin the United StatesMegan M. Sweeney and R. Kelly Raley 539

    Urban and Rural Community Sociology

    Where, When, Why, and For Whom Do Residential ContextsMatter? Moving Away from the Dichotomous Understanding ofNeighborhood EffectsPatrick Sharkey and Jacob W. Faber 559

    Gender and Urban SpaceDaphne Spain 581

    Policy

    Somebodys Children or Nobodys Children? How the SociologicalPerspective Could Enliven Research on Foster CareChristopher Wildeman and Jane Waldfogel 599

    Sociology and World Regions

    Intergenerational Mobility and Inequality: The Latin American CaseFlorencia Torche 619

    A Critical Overview of Migration and Development:The Latin American ChallengeRaul Delgado-Wise 643

    Indexes

    Cumulative Index of Contributing Authors, Volumes 3140 665

    Cumulative Index of Article Titles, Volumes 3140 669

    Errata

    An online log of corrections to Annual Review of Sociology articles may be found athttp://www.annualreviews.org/errata/soc

    Contents vii

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  • AnnuAl Reviewsits about time. Your time. its time well spent.

    AnnuAl Reviews | Connect with Our expertsTel: 800.523.8635 (us/can) | Tel: 650.493.4400 | Fax: 650.424.0910 | Email: service@annualreviews.org

    New From Annual Reviews:Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational BehaviorVolume 1 March 2014 Online & In Print http://orgpsych.annualreviews.org

    Editor: Frederick P. Morgeson, The Eli Broad College of Business, Michigan State UniversityThe Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior is devoted to publishing reviews of the industrial and organizational psychology, human resource management, and organizational behavior literature. Topics for review include motivation, selection, teams, training and development, leadership, job performance, strategic HR, cross-cultural issues, work attitudes, entrepreneurship, affect and emotion, organizational change and development, gender and diversity, statistics and research methodologies, and other emerging topics.Complimentary online access to the first volume will be available until March 2015.TAble oF CoNTeNTs:An Ounce of Prevention Is Worth a Pound of Cure: Improving

    Research Quality Before Data Collection, Herman Aguinis, Robert J. Vandenberg

    Burnout and Work Engagement: The JD-R Approach, Arnold B. Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti, Ana Isabel Sanz-Vergel

    Compassion at Work, Jane E. Dutton, Kristina M. Workman, Ashley E. Hardin

    ConstructivelyManagingConflictinOrganizations, Dean Tjosvold, Alfred S.H. Wong, Nancy Yi Feng Chen

    Coworkers Behaving Badly: The Impact of Coworker Deviant Behavior upon Individual Employees, Sandra L. Robinson, Wei Wang, Christian Kiewitz

    Delineating and Reviewing the Role of Newcomer Capital in Organizational Socialization, Talya N. Bauer, Berrin Erdogan

    Emotional Intelligence in Organizations, Stphane CtEmployee Voice and Silence, Elizabeth W. Morrison Intercultural Competence, Kwok Leung, Soon Ang,

    Mei Ling TanLearning in the Twenty-First-Century Workplace,

    Raymond A. Noe, Alena D.M. Clarke, Howard J. KleinPay Dispersion, Jason D. ShawPersonality and Cognitive Ability as Predictors of Effective

    Performance at Work, Neal Schmitt

    Perspectives on Power in Organizations, Cameron Anderson, Sebastien Brion

    Psychological Safety: The History, Renaissance, and Future of an Interpersonal Construct, Amy C. Edmondson, Zhike Lei

    Research on Workplace Creativity: A Review and Redirection, Jing Zhou, Inga J. Hoever

    Talent Management: Conceptual Approaches and Practical Challenges, Peter Cappelli, JR Keller

    The Contemporary Career: A WorkHome Perspective, Jeffrey H. Greenhaus, Ellen Ernst Kossek

    The Fascinating Psychological Microfoundations of Strategy and Competitive Advantage, Robert E. Ployhart, Donald Hale, Jr.

    The Psychology of Entrepreneurship, Michael Frese, Michael M. Gielnik

    The Story of Why We Stay: A Review of Job Embeddedness, Thomas William Lee, Tyler C. Burch, Terence R. Mitchell

    What Was, What Is, and What May Be in OP/OB, Lyman W. Porter, Benjamin Schneider

    Where Global and Virtual Meet: The Value of Examining the Intersection of These Elements in Twenty-First-Century Teams, Cristina B. Gibson, Laura Huang, Bradley L. Kirkman, Debra L. Shapiro

    WorkFamily Boundary Dynamics, Tammy D. Allen, Eunae Cho, Laurenz L. Meier

    Access this and all other Annual Reviews journals via your institution at www.annualreviews.org.

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  • AnnuAl Reviewsits about time. Your time. its time well spent.

    AnnuAl Reviews | Connect with Our expertsTel: 800.523.8635 (us/can) | Tel: 650.493.4400 | Fax: 650.424.0910 | Email: service@annualreviews.org

    New From Annual Reviews:Annual Review of Statistics and Its ApplicationVolume 1 Online January 2014 http://statistics.annualreviews.org

    Editor: Stephen E. Fienberg, Carnegie Mellon UniversityAssociate Editors: Nancy Reid, University of Toronto

    Stephen M. Stigler, University of ChicagoThe Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application aims to inform statisticians and quantitative methodologists, as well as all scientists and users of statistics about major methodological advances and the computational tools that allow for their implementation. It will include developments in the field of statistics, including theoretical statistical underpinnings of new methodology, as well as developments in specific application domains such as biostatistics and bioinformatics, economics, machine learning, psychology, sociology, and aspects of the physical sciences.

    Complimentary online access to the first volume will be available until January 2015.

    table of contents:What Is Statistics? Stephen E. FienbergA Systematic Statistical Approach to Evaluating Evidence

    from Observational Studies, David Madigan, Paul E. Stang, Jesse A. Berlin, Martijn Schuemie, J. Marc Overhage, Marc A. Suchard, Bill Dumouchel, Abraham G. Hartzema, Patrick B. Ryan

    The Role of Statistics in the Discovery of a Higgs Boson, David A. van Dyk

    Brain Imaging Analysis, F. DuBois BowmanStatistics and Climate, Peter GuttorpClimate Simulators and Climate Projections,

    Jonathan Rougier, Michael GoldsteinProbabilistic Forecasting, Tilmann Gneiting,

    Matthias KatzfussBayesian Computational Tools, Christian P. RobertBayesian Computation Via Markov Chain Monte Carlo,

    Radu V. Craiu, Jeffrey S. Rosenthal

    Build, Compute, Critique, Repeat: Data Analysis with Latent Variable Models, David M. Blei

    Structured Regularizers for High-Dimensional Problems: Statistical and Computational Issues, Martin J. Wainwright

    High-Dimensional Statistics with a View Toward Applications in Biology, Peter Bhlmann, Markus Kalisch, Lukas Meier

    Next-Generation Statistical Genetics: Modeling, Penalization, and Optimization in High-Dimensional Data, Kenneth Lange, Jeanette C. Papp, Janet S. Sinsheimer, Eric M. Sobel

    Breaking Bad: Two Decades of Life-Course Data Analysis in Criminology, Developmental Psychology, and Beyond, Elena A. Erosheva, Ross L. Matsueda, Donatello Telesca

    Event History Analysis, Niels KeidingStatisticalEvaluationofForensicDNAProfileEvidence,

    Christopher D. Steele, David J. BaldingUsing League Table Rankings in Public Policy Formation:

    Statistical Issues, Harvey GoldsteinStatistical Ecology, Ruth KingEstimating the Number of Species in Microbial Diversity

    Studies, John Bunge, Amy Willis, Fiona WalshDynamic Treatment Regimes, Bibhas Chakraborty,

    Susan A. MurphyStatistics and Related Topics in Single-Molecule Biophysics,

    Hong Qian, S.C. KouStatistics and Quantitative Risk Management for Banking

    and Insurance, Paul Embrechts, Marius Hofert

    Access this and all other Annual Reviews journals via your institution at www.annualreviews.org.

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    Annual Reviews OnlineSearch Annual ReviewsAnnual Review of SociologyOnlineMost Downloaded Sociology Reviews Most Cited Sociology Reviews Annual Review of SociologyErrata View Current Editorial Committee

    All Articles in the Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 40Prefatory ChapterMaking Sense of Culture

    Theory and MethodsEndogenous Selection Bias: The Problem of Conditioning on aCollider VariableMeasurement Equivalence in Cross-National ResearchThe Sociology of Empires, Colonies, and PostcolonialismData Visualization in SociologyDigital Footprints: Opportunities and Challenges for Online SocialResearch

    Social ProcessesSocial Isolation in AmericaWar60 Years After Brown: Trends and Consequences of School SegregationPanethnicity

    Institutions and CultureA Comparative View of Ethnicity and Political Engagement

    Formal Organizations(When) Do Organizations Have Social Capital?The Political Mobilization of Firms and Industries

    Political and Economic SociologyPolitical Parties and the Sociological Imagination: Past, Present, and Future DirectionsTaxes and Fiscal Sociology

    Differentiation and StratificationThe One PercentImmigrants and African AmericansCaste in Contemporary India: Flexibility and PersistenceIncarceration, Prisoner Reentry, and CommunitiesIntersectionality and the Sociology of HIV/AIDS: Past, Present,and Future Research Directions

    Individual and SocietyEthnic Diversity and Its Effects on Social Cohesion

    DemographyWarmth of the Welcome: Attitudes Toward Immigrantsand Immigration Policy in the United StatesHispanics in Metropolitan America: New Realities and Old DebatesTransitions to Adulthood in Developing CountriesRace, Ethnicity, and the Changing Context of Childbearingin the United States

    Urban and Rural Community SociologyWhere, When, Why, and For Whom Do Residential Contexts Matter? Moving Away from the Dichotomous Understanding of Neighborhood EffectsGender and Urban Space

    PolicySomebodys Children or Nobodys Children? How the Sociological Perspective Could Enliven Research on Foster Care

    Sociology and World RegionsIntergenerational Mobility and Inequality: The Latin American CaseA Critical Overview of Migration and Development:The Latin American Challenge

    Spanish TranslationMigracin Internacional y Cambios Familiares en las Comunidades de Origen. Transformaciones y Resistencias

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