stealth technology in aircraft


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STEALTH TECHNOLOGY IN AIRCRAFT. BRIEFING ABOUT THE TECHNOLOGY. Stealth aircraft are aircraft that use stealth technology to make it harder to be detected by radar and other means than Conventional aircraft by employing a combination of features - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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BRIEFING ABOUT THE TECHNOLOGYStealth aircraft are aircraft that use stealth technology to make it harder to be detected by radar and other means than Conventional aircraft by employing a combination of features to reduce visibility in the visual, audio, infrared and radio frequency (RF) spectrum. Well known examples include the United States' F-117 Nighthawk (1980s-2008), the B-2 Spirit "Stealth Bomber," and the F-22 Raptor.

Stealth is accomplished by using a complex design philosophy to reduce the ability of an opponent's sensors to detect, track and attack an aircraft .

Modern stealth aircraft first became possible when amathematician working for Lockheed Aircraft during the 1970sadopted a mathematical model developed by Petr Ufimtsev, aRussian scientist, to develop a computer program called Echo 1.

Principles Of Radar

Echo made it possible to predict the radar signature an aircraftmade with flat panels, called facets.

Echo can be considered as a wave bouncing off the surface and coming back to source.

This principle can be used to detect time and distance of target .

Doppler shift is second principle of radar.

This can b used to detect the speed of target approaching..

Reduced radar cross section is only one of five factors thatdesigners addressed to create a truly stealthy design. Designersalso addressed making the aircraft less visible to the naked eye,controlling radio transmissions, and noise abatement.

The first combat use of stealth aircraft was in December 1989during Operation Just Cause in Panama. In 1991, F-117s were tasked with attacking the most heavily fortified targets in Iraq and were the only jets allowed to operate inside Baghdad's city limits

Attention towards these aircrafts is made after persian war II ,91Night-enhanced images of the otherworldly-shapedF-117s taking off in the night and striking high-value targets with scarcely believable precision and seeming invulnerability to thick air defences were widely televised and etched in the memories of TV viewers worldwide.

Loss of at least one F-117 in Kosovo, has peeled off some of the mythical cloak surrounding stealth.

Different technologies and strategies forSTEALTH

Ben Rich, the leader of the Lockheed team that designed the F-117, has stated: "A stealth aircraft has to be stealthy in six disciplines: radar, infrared, visual, acoustic, smoke and contrail. If you don't do that, youflunk the course."

Different technologies and strategies for stealth are the provinceof land, naval and underwater forces. Underwater warfare will naturally hand dominance to the acoustic spectrum Land combat will emphasize visual, infra-red and acoustic signatures.Radar and (to a lesser extent) infrared bands dominate the scene of airspace surveillance, and so they have to be given higher priority when thinking the applications in air warfare.

Signature Of A Vehicle

The signature can be stated as any activity or radiation or characteristic of the body that help to revile its presence at a particular point.

Observability of an object on detection system can b called as signature of vehicle.

All detection methods used either in military or civil applications use signature of body as reference to detect that object.


All radar systems, from an AWACS to police speed radar, work in the same principle : A certain amount of electromagnetic energyis transmitted through a directional antenna, which focuses it into a conical beam. When a reflective target blocks part of the beam, that part of the beam is reflected in many different directions, or "scattered." If the scattering is fairly random, as is usually the case, some energy will be reflected in the direction of the radar antenna. Most radar transmits this energy in pulses, thousands of them every second.

In the gaps between the pulse transmissions, the radar becomes a receiver, and the gaps are carefully chosen to be just long enough for the signal to make its way to the target and back at the speed of light1.

The time interval between the transmission and reception of thepulse gives the range from the radar to the target.

The radar antenna moves at a pre-determined regular rate, so the time atwhich the target moves in and out of the beam can be tied to theposition of the antenna, giving the target's bearing from the location of the radar. Comparison between Human Eye & Radar

Humans see in a world which is saturated with visible light, so that almost every square inch of it reflects some light toward us at all times .

The radar only "sees" the energy that is reflected toward it. The radarcan detect a target ONLY when its antenna captures enough energy to rise above the electronic noise that is invariably present in the receiver. Variablesin the Transmission-scattering-Reflection

They all affect the maximum range of the above process. They are :

- The strength of the outgoing signal- The width of the beam- The size of the antenna- The reflectivity, or RCS, of the target.

Process Diagram

Scattered RaysReflected BeamConical BeamAWACSEnemy AircraftRCS

RCSRadar Cross Section

Out of radar designers control.

RCS not directly proportional to detection range because of radial scattering effects and cannonical beam of radar.

Radar cross section is the measure of a targets ability to reflect radar signals in the direction of the radar reciever i.e per unit solid angle.

The conceptual definition of rcs includes the fact that not all of the radiating energy falls on the target .

RCS The rcs is easily visualized as product of three factors.

Rcs ()=projected cross section *reflectivity*directivity.

reflectivity=the percentage of power reradiated(scattered) by the target .

Directivity=the ratio of power scattered back in radar direction.

RADIATION SCATTERING BY TARGETThe sphere is essentially same in almost all directions i.e. 360 degreeThe flat plane has has almost no rcs except when aligned directly towards radar i.e. 90 degreeThe corner reflector has an rcs almost high as flat plane over a wider angle i.e. 60 degree.

Minimizing Rcs Conventional aircraft use round shape cone as it support principle of aerodynamics.The stealth aircraft is made up of flat surface and very sharp edges Radar signal heating the stealth plane are scattered in all directions by this. Metallic surfaces generally reflect the radar signals.There stealth aircraft should be coated with radar absorbent materials.Which deflect and absorbed incoming radar waves and reduce the detection range.Radar absorbent layer is present below the surface coating of aircraft using corner reflector.GEOMETRIC DESIGNRADAR ABSORBENT MATERIALS



Visual stealthLow visibility is desirable for all military applications

Earlier stealth aircraft were painted black and thus could be used during nights

Now days an electro chromic polymer is being developed for daytime stealth

These polymer sheets sense nature of the surrounding and change there color accordingly

Visual stealth

Infra-red stealthInfra-red radiation are emitted by all matter above absolute temperature zero

Hot zones such as engine exhaust , wing surface [ friction due to air ] get heated which rather increases the visibility

These part should be kept cool as possible it can be Option would be mixing of cool air with the hot engine exhaust

Infra-red stealth

Acoustic stealthAcoustic cells involves the sound waves to detect the target

Knowing the fact thats sound waves moves too slowly as compared to radio wave so it functionality should be directed towards low altitude flying aircraft and pre-dominantly ships and submarines.

Plasma stealthIn this stealth the aircraft injects a stream of ionized gas which envelopes the aircraft due to which most of the radar wave are observe this make the aircraft completely invisible

Advantages of stealthReduces the causality rates during war

Saving military budget

Develop the military secretes

Bluff the anti-detective device

Issues with stealthStealth aircraft cannot fly as fast as conventional aircraft

Can carry limited amount of load

Very economic B-2 cost [ $2 billion ] ,F-22 [$100 million ] Wing shape does not provide the optimum the lift.

ConclusionWell to conclude the current scenario appears some things similar to the cold war both sides are accumulating weapons to counter each other and each side can be termed as stealth technology and the other as anti-stealth technology.

Its an arm race except it isnt between specific countries .