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SSWH 2 PresentationAncient World

SSWH 2

Identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies to 500

CE/AD.

You are here

INDIA

CHINA

EgyptMesopotamia

China and India

SSWH 2

Identify the major achievements of Chinese and Indian societies to 500

CE/AD.

Where is India?

A.

Describe the development of Indian civilization, include: the rise and fall of

the Maurya and Gupta Empires.

VocabularySubcontinent - a large distinguishable part of a continent

Indus River - located in Western India; the site of one of the earliest civilizations

Himalayas - a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The Himalayan range has many of the Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest.

Maurya Empire - name of the first empire in India - ruled from 321 to 185 B.C.E.

Ashoka - ruled the Mauryan Empire from 273 to 232 BCE, during which time he converted from Hinduism to Buddhism and renounced war.

Gupta Empire - Indian Empire ruled from 320 to 550 CE and is known for the artistic and intellectual advances that cultivated there because of its long-lasting peace.

Early India & Geography

Early Indian civilizations developed in the Indus River valley Ancient Indian cities and

towns were all located along the Indus River because of trade and transportation

INDUS RIVER

Early India & Geography India is separated from the

rest of Asia by two major mountain ranges Himalayas Hindu Kush

HimalayasHind

u

Kush

Indian subcontinent

Invaders can only enter the Indian subcontinent over water or through a small number of mountain passes

HimalayasHin

du

Kush

Indian subcontinent

The most well-known mountain pass is the Khyber Pass.

Khyber Pass

Early India & Geography Plains stretch south

from the mountains There are two major

rivers on these plains Indus Ganges

Indus River

Ganges River

Aryan Civilization Beginning in

1500 B.C.E., a group of peoples called Aryans invaded the Indus River valley

Aryan Civilization The Aryans originated

from the area north of the Black and Caspian Seas

The Aryans entered India through the Khyber Pass

Aryan Civilization Nomadic at first, settled

down into agriculture in Indus Valley

Each tribe led by a rajah (chief)

Importance of cattle Served as basis of diet,

eventually used as money

To provide social control and conformity

Caste System established

Mauryan EmpireThe Mauryas: Indian dynasty in the

fourth-third centuries BCE

unified the subcontinent for the first time

contributed to the spread of Buddhism

Unified by Chandragupta Maurya

Chandragupta Maurya(321 - 297 BCE)

Founded the Mauryan Empire

united Northern India under his rule

efficient and highly organized autocracy with a standing army and civil service

Ashoka Maurya(272 BCE - 232 BCE)

Grandson to Chandragupta Maurya

last major emperor in the Mauryan dynasty

Following his successful but bloody conquest

renounced armed conquest

https://www.britannica.com/topic/emperor-titlehttps://www.britannica.com/place/Mauryan-Empirehttps://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dynasty

Ashoka Maurya(272 BCE - 232 BCE)

After the adoption of Buddhism, Ashoka: Never again went to war

publicity for his teachings/work: made them known by

engravings on rocks and pillars at suitable sites

Ashoka Maurya Carved his laws on rocks

(Edicts of Ashoka) These laws let everyone

know of his conversion to Buddhism

Established free hospitals and veterinary clinics

Built roads with rest areas for travelers

Fall of the Mauryan EmpireAshoka dies. Due to a period of decentralization

and waring kingdom creates roughly 500 years of years of turmoil.

1. Weak Successors2. Size of the Empire3. Foreign invasion4. Internal Revolt

Gupta Empire BeginningsLegacy of Strong Rulers Reunites India

Chandragupta I (319 CE - 335 CE)

gains political power and military might

makes the empire powerful

Gupta Empire BeginningsLegacy of Strong Rulers

Reunites India

Samudragupta (335 CE - 375 CE)

military genius continues growth of kingdom

Gupta Empire BeginningsLegacy of Strong Rulers

Reunites India

Chandragupta II (375 CE - 415 CE)

Uses military conquest and diplomacy to rise to power

Creates standing military

Gupta Empire

Scientific achievement Medicine: made huge strides in the field of

surgery Astronomy: Discovered the earth turns on its

axis every day Less centralized than Mauryan Empire- Involved

local people in the government

Golden Age - peace, prosperity, focus on education and achievements

arts, music, literature, and science grew

Gupta Empire Charitable institutions, schools,

orphanages hospitals rest houses

Healthy system of trade Religious tolerance

B.Describe the development of Chinese

civilization under the Zhou, Qin, and Han.

VocabularyDynasty - is a ruling family whose members govern one after another over a long period of time.Zhou - was the second dynasty in China and was the longest lasting one in Chinese history: 1045 to 256 BCE.Mandate of Heaven - the belief that Chinese dynasties ruled or lost power based on how pleased or displeased the gods were with their abilities and actions.Qin - dynasty unified China in 221 BCE, standardized the language, and built the Great Wall before being overthrown in 206 BCE.Han - Chinese dynasty ruled from the 200s BCE to the 200s CE, implementing a civil service system during their rule.

Great Wall - is a series of stone and earthen fortifications which were built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 6th Century BC and the 16th century AD, to protect the northern borders of an empire.

You are here

INDIA

CHINA

EgyptMesopotamia

China and India

Where is China?

Ancient China Early societies in China developed along the Yangtze and

Huang He (Yellow River) It is the 2nd longest river in the world Known as Chinas Sorrow - because of its flooding People lived here for 27,000 years

Zhou China (1100 B.C. 250 B.C.)

Nomadic tribe that defeated the Shang dynasty

Established the idea of the Mandate of Heaven to validate their rule Mandate of Heaven: Authority

granted by heaven to deserving rulers - supernatural spirits

If you are fair and just you can continue to rule

Zhou China (1100 B.C. 250 B.C.)

Use of the Feudal System of government Emperor gives land to lords These leaders pledge loyalty These leaders give out jobs

and land

Fall of Zhou Empire Use of feudal techniques to

manage a widespread empire regional leaders given

considerable control subjects became loyal to the

local power rather than to the Emperor

Zhou Dynasty ended in wars and political upheaval.

http://www.usatestprep.com/modules/questions/question.php?testid=205&strandid=1018&elementid=6568&id=31245&choose=1&i=0#http://www.usatestprep.com/modules/questions/question.php?testid=205&strandid=1018&elementid=6568&id=73425&choose=1&i=0#

Qin China (221 B.C. 206 B.C.)

China was unified by Qin Shihuangdi following the Warring States period

Utilized strong military power conquer their enemies

Qin Shihuangdi destroyed the power of the nobles removed from their positions

and sent to live in the capital

213 B.C. - Shihuangdi burned thousands of books Afraid of scholars and writings

that could challenge his power Believed in Legalism as a political

philosophy Control people through the use of

more guards, strict rules, heavy penalties

Qin China (221 B.C. 206 B.C.)

Achievements of the Qin Standardized the Chinese language

and a system of measurement Unified law code for China Credit for unifying China

economically, politically, and culturally

Created a legacy of centralized government unified under one ruler

We get the modern day name for China from the Qin

Qin China (221 B.C.E 206 B.C.E)

Connected walls built along the northern border of China to form the Great Wall to protect from invaders

It stretched 4,000 miles

End of Qin China

Qin Shihuangdi died in 210 B.C.

Son was weak leader Hatred for Qin boiled over

into rebellion in 206 B.C.

Han China (206 B.C.E 220 C.E.)

End of rebellion: peasant named Liu Bang emerged as the new emperor of China and established the Han Dynasty

maintained many of the policies of the Qin but relaxed the severity through use of Confucianism required leaders to earn the

respect of the governed.

Han China (206 B.C.E 220 C.E)

maintained control of an empire even larger than the Qin

the Han directed a vast bureaucracy organized into nine ministries and regional authorities staffed by educated civil

servants who received their appointments based on their score on a rigorous civil service examination

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