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Soviet Union. 1985-1991. 1985. Failed attempts at reform Stagnant economy (oil prices dropped) War in Afghanistan Surge of nationalism in “republics” Baltic states Eastern bloc Mikhail Gorbache v allowed open criticism. 1991. Boris Yeltsin seized power in a coup - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Soviet Union

Soviet Union1985-1991

1985Failed attempts at reformStagnant economy (oil prices dropped)War in AfghanistanSurge of nationalism in republicsBaltic statesEastern blocMikhail Gorbachev allowed open criticism1991Boris Yeltsin seized power in a coupGorbachev toppled via his own reformsUSSR collapsed and the CIS is institutedRise of Gorbachev

March 1985- December 1991This was the Soviet Union in 1991

ArmeniaAzerbaijanBelarusEstoniaGeorgiaKazakhstanKyrgyzstanLatviaLithuaniaMoldovaRussiaTajikistanTurkmenistanUkraineUzbekistan

Between 1969 and 1987Global shift in generation reformAfghanistan was the USSRs VietnamChernobyl nuclear plant disaster (1986)Glasnost and perestroika reforms

1985: Rise of GorbachevKonstantin Chermenko, last of the old-liners, diesMikhail Gorbachev, first of the technocrats, becomes General SecretaryRise of de-Stalinization generation from Khrushchevs 1950sConsolidate power to provide reform momentum

Out With the OldChermenko

Gorbachev

US Reaction to ChangeEnd of Dtente ReformsEconomic, Political, Foreign PolicyLaw on Cooperatives (May 88)Private ownershipFirst since Lenins NEPServices, manufacturing, foreign trade privatizedCooperative restaurants, shops, factories allowedSocialism weakened

GlasnostSpeech and press freed upPressure on conservativesSeeks support from Soviet people for economic policies

The New OpennessPolitical prisoners and dissidents released from gulags in SiberiaPublic opinion pollsState archives accessible to publicGender studies, stats on crime, income, abortion, infant mortality, suicide published

Politics Gets WesternizedDemocratizationMulti-Party ElectionsJune 1988 CPSUs 19th Party Conference launches radical changeCongress of Peoples Deputies established for legislation

Changes in the Soviet UnionGorbachev could be forced to resign if the elite are dissatisfiedPresident is independent of the CPSU and could only be impeached if law is directly violatedCPSU is deprived of direct political power

Unintended ConsequenceMedia exposes severe social and economic problemsProblems shownpoor housingalcoholismdrug abusepollutionout-dated factoriescorruption

Archives Show State SecretsGulags for opponentsStalins treaty with HitlerGreat PurgesLoss in AfghanistanMishandling of Chernobyl

Hitler-Stalin Pact

Break Down of the Warsaw PactLech Walesas rise in Poland under Solidarity Movement in 1980-1989Romanias violent uprising in 19891990-91loss of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and Hungary

Walesa of PolandReagan at the Berlin WallHungarian ComradesRomanian Revolt by Army & Workers against CeausescuJohn Lennon Wall in Prague, Czech.Like Nationalist Revolts within Its Own BordersFeb 88Azerbaijanis v Armenians for ethnic states lead to massacresBaltic SSRs revolt and gain sovereigntyLithuania (90), Latvia (91), and Estonia (91)

Latvia Museum of Occupation

Georgia Museum

Perestroika Poster

Ukrainian MuseumGlasnost v PerestroikaGlasnostFree speechFree pressAccess to archivesPolitical partiesNationalist, ethnic movementsLabor rightsPerestroikaPrivate businessEnd govt monopoly of the means of productionCompetition in export tradeDecentralization inroads Loss of Economic ControlState forced to bail-out unprofitable enterprisesState consumer goods subsidies increaseTaxes decline with anti-alcohol campaignRegions with autonomy withhold taxesProduction bottlenecks; shortages appear

The Final Blow1991 August CoupNew Union Treaty ProposedJune: Boris Yeltsin wins as Russia SSR PresidentFederation of independent republics formedCPSU would control markets and social lifeOpposed by conservatives fearing break upGorbachev under house arrestCoup begun by KBG

The Coup d'tat

Army Tanks in Red Square

Boris Yeltsin

Anti-Coup Yeltsin Supporters

Aftermath of the Failed CoupCPSU banned by Boris Yeltsin throughout Russia SSROne-by-one SSRs declare independenceEconomic union formed in a power playTreaty of Union 1922 evokedGorbachev removed from power90% of Ukrainians vote for separation 12/1/91

Commonwealth of Independent States Declared!!!

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Is Gone12/8/91 Belavezha Accords signed by Russia, Ukraine, and BelorussiaGorbachev says unconstitutional12/12 Russia denounces 1922 Treaty12/17 CIS recognized by 28 European countries12/24 Russia declared UN successor to USSR for diplomatic purposes (power)

Summation of Events Principal elements of USSRHierarchy of soviets with Russia at topEthnic federalism (no such thingone nation under Moscow)State socialismCommunist Party (CPSU) dominationGorbachevs perestroika and glasnost reforms produce radical reforms and unforeseen effectsCoalitions built to support reformsEconomic problems put USSR into stagnation Openness leads to oppositionCPSU challenged and dividedSSRs and Bloc countries rebel openlyNationalist, orthodox Communists, and populist forces attempt liberalization and revitalization of the Soviet UnionGorbachev fails at compromise Conservative coup beaten by Yeltsin supportersPost-Soviet Restructuring The Yeltsin ShockSubsidies for consumer goods cutPrice controls abolishedYeltsin cronies given government property and assets as private enterprisesOligarchy, not democracy, merges

The New Russia 22% live below the poverty lineLife expectancy and birth rates declinedGNP halved since 1991 Prices of natural resources increased Investments and businesses soar Emigration out increased