SOUTH SUDAN – SUDAN: Dispute Rumbles On

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  • Infrastructures Minister Adoum You-noussmi.

    CNPCI is a subsidiary of the state-owned China National Petroleum Cor-poration (CNPC). (RNW, AFP 20 1)

    News agencies added on January 24ththat the move to close the renery hadescalated the row, and it threatened todamage Chads relationship with Chi-nese investors, who have earmarked bil-lions of dollars for infrastructureprojects.

    The renery produces gasoline andother fuels for the domestic market atprices set by the government, whichrenery ocials say are too low tocover its crude costs.

    Despite the concessions granted to themby Chad authorities over fuel prices, theChinese continue to run us around, Ma-hamat Allahou Taher, Chads Ministerfor Trade and Industry, said, adding thatthe government had issued a notice sus-pending the deal with CNPC.

    An inter-departmental committee willbe set up to renegotiate a new agree-ment, he said. The disruptions havecaused fuel shortages in the country,and petrol is now being rationed. (NewsAgencies 24 1)

    However, AFP reported on February6th that the government had decided toreopen the oil renery in order to helpthe negotiations which had startedthree days earlier. ( AFP 6 2 2012)

    KENYA - SOUTHSUDANOil Pipeline Agreement

    The move will reduce dependence onSudans ports to export oil.

    Kenya and South Sudan have signedan agreement for the construction of anoil pipeline connecting the two coun-tries. The agreement, signed in Juba onJanuary 24th and witnessed by PrimeMinister Raila Odinga and the Presi-dent of South Sudan Mr Salva Kiir,will allow the development of an oilpipeline and bre optic connectionsbetween the oil elds in South Sudanand the Kenyan port town of Lamu.

    The pipeline will be developed throughKenyan territory and will be built andowned by South Sudan. The two coun-tries will negotiate and agree on transitfees for the oil pipeline.

    Despite South Sudans oil wealth withproduction of 470,000 barrels per day,it lacks the infrastructure to rene andexport oil. Oil rms active in SouthSudan include Chinese state-ownedChina National Oil Corporation

    (CNPC), and Sinopec, Malaysiasstate-owned Petronas, and Oil and Nat-ural Gas Corporation (ONGC) of India.(Daily Nation website, Nairobi 26 1)

    Meanwhile, The Reporter website(28 1) revealed that the Hong Kong-based Chinese company, PetroTrans, isnegotiating with the government ofSouth Sudan on the construction of anoil pipeline from South Sudan oileldsto the port of Djibouti.

    The Reporter said that PetroTrans hassubmitted a proposal to the South Suda-nese government on the pipeline con-struction that stretches from Gambela (aregional state in western Ethiopia, bor-dering South Sudan) to Djibouti.

    The Chinese company is expected tocome up with a loan from the Chinesestate banks. However, the distance andcost of the pipeline construction is not yetdetermined. The project also needs theapproval of the Ethiopian government.(The Reporter website, Addis Ababa 28 1)

    LIBYAMigration Route

    The ood of illegal immigrants intransit to Europe resumes, despitethe massive risks to life.

    At least 15 Somali migrants were killedand 40 left missing after their boat cap-sized o the coast of Libya at the endof January, the Somali ambassador toTripoli said.

    Fifteen bodies, including one childand 12 women, were recovered o thecoast of Misrata after their boat sank,ambassador Abdelghami Wais toldAFP. The boat had been carrying 55Somalis, Wais said, and the other pas-sengers were still missing.

    Libya has for decades been a destina-tion and a transit country to Europeanshores for hundreds of thousands ofAfrican migrants seeking jobs and abetter life.

    The ousted regime of slain dictatorMouammar Gaddafy used the issue toexert pressure on Europe and asked for5bn from the European Union (EU)in 2011 to stem the ow of illegals.

    The new rulers of the North Africancountry have adopted a dierentapproach, with Interior Minister FawziAbdelali saying Libya will not be theborder guard for Europe.

    Citing enormous problems for Libyacaused by the inux of thousands ofmigrants, Abdelali called upon Europeand neighbouring countries to help dealwith the ow. He specically asked forassistance to rehabilitate 19 detention

    centres and with a system of bordersurveillance.

    On January 19th, Interior Ministryspokesman General Abdelmonem al-Tunsi told AFP that illegal immigrationhad resumed since the end of the anti-Gaddafy revolt.

    He said thousands of people fromunrest-swept Syria were also enteringthrough the Massad terminal on theborder with Egypt, apart from Africansinltrating through the southern bor-ders. Tunsi said that on January 10ththe authorities intercepted 260 such ille-gal migrants who were aided by threeLibyans armed with Kalashnikovs.

    He said the ood of illegal immigrantsbegan at the end of the conict as thecountrys borders were not fullyguarded.

    When the anti-Gaddafy revolt eruptedin February, tens of thousands of ille-gal immigrants ed Libya and fewdared venture into the North Africannation while ghting against Gaddafysforces raged in 2011. ( AFP 28 1 2012)

    SOUTH SUDAN SUDANDispute Rumbles On

    An AU-brokered peace deal issigned, but the fundamental problemof oil transit fees remains unre-solved.

    The governments of Sudan and SouthSudan have signed a non-aggressiontreaty in the Ethiopian capital, AddisAbaba, that is hoped to de-escalategrowing tensions between the neigh-bouring states.

    The chairman of the African Union(AU) High Level Implementation Panel(AUHIP), Thabo Mbeki, said that theaccord also provides for a monitoringmechanism that would look into anyallegations of violations by either side.

    In the event that there are complaintsor allegations from either side... thenthey should be appointed to the jointmechanism, Mbeki told reporters,according to AFP.

    The deal was signed by the head ofSouth Sudans intelligence bureau, Tho-mas Douth, and Sudans director ofNational Intelligence and SecurityServices (NISS) Mohammed Atta.

    In recent weeks the leaders in Khar-toum and Juba have exchanged warn-ings of possible outbreak of warparticularly as the long standing dis-pute over oil showed no sign of easing.

    At the end of January, South Sudansuspended its oil production in retalia-tion for a decision by Khartoum to seize

    January 16thFebruary 15th 2012 Africa Research Bulletin 19403

    A B C

    Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2012.

  • 1.7m barrels of its crude exportedthrough the norths pipelines to satisfywhat it claims to be nancial arrears.On top of that, the two countries accuseeach other of supporting rebel groupsghting their respective governments.

    In particular, Khartoum lodged com-plaints with the United Nations Secu-rity Council (UNSC) detailing supportit claims Juba gives to the Sudan Peo-ples Liberation Movement North(SPLM-N) ghting the Sudanese armyin the border states of Blue Nile andSouth Kordofan.

    There have been several reports of aer-ial bombardments by Sudan ArmedForces (SAF) inside the borders ofSouth Sudan in the last few months.

    According to the pact, the two sidesagreed to respect each others sover-eignty and territorial integrity and torefrain from launching any attack,including bombardment.

    Mbeki urged both sides to adhere tothe peace deal.

    It remains to be seen whether theagreement will produce any change onthe ground or tone down rhetoric fromocials in the two countries.

    Since its inception in October 2009, theAUHIP has worked tirelessly to helpKhartoum and Juba sort out theirpost-secession contentious issues suchas oil, borders, Abyei, national debtand citizenship.

    But so far little progress has been madeon resolving these items. In June, theSudanese President Omar Hassanal-Bashir even scrapped an AUHIPbrokered framework agreement his

    assistant signed relating to the conictin South Kordofan.

    Furthermore, another accord on Abyeicrafted by Mbekis panel faced dicul-ties in implementation after Khartoumlater attached conditions to fully with-drawing its troops from the disputedregion.

    In New York, the United Nations Secre-tary General Ban Ki-moon warned onFebruary 10th that tensions between thetwo nations could escalate if outstandingissues are not resolved, urging peace andreaching agreements on all issues.

    The moment has come for the leadersof both countries to make the necessarycompromises... that will guarantee apeaceful and prosperous future for bothnations, he said in a statement. (SudanTribune, Khartoum 10 2) Fierce oil disputewith Sudan Vol. 48, p. 19367B

    Talks between the two sides would con-tinue until February 15th in Addis Ab-aba. The AU panel hopes technicaldetails, such as a pipeline fee and out-standing arrears, will be decided if theparties accept to talk.

    On February 10th, British-based cam-paign group Global Witness said theinternational community must intervenein the latest round of the negotiationsto ease the rising tensions.

    The AU, China and Western govern-ments must push for an immediate res-olution to the ongoing oil disputebetween Sudan and South Sudan, thegroup said in a statement.

    The South depends on oil for morethan 90% of its revenues, while Khar-toums Finance Minister has said thatthe loss of oil from the South left abudget shortfall of 30%.

    Since then, Sudan has witnessed spiral-ling ination, which the governmentsees reaching 17% in 2012 and thesharp devaluation of the Sudanesepound. ( AFP 10 2 2012)

    Kidnapped Chinese Freed: The Sudanesearmy freed 14 Chinese constructionworkers abducted by militants in aremote region in the countrys south.

    The rescued workers were evacuated tothe town of El Obeid, Ahmed Haroun,the governor of South Kordofan, saidon January 30th. Twenty-nine workershad been taken during an attack nearAbbasiya on January 28th. The remain-ing workers were freed and own toKenya on February 7th by the Interna-tional Committee of the Red Cross(ICRC).

    Sudanese ocials blame the SudanPeoples Liberation Movement-North,a branch of a guerrilla movementwhich fought Khartoum for decades

    for the abductions. (The Independent,London 31 1; AFP 7 2)

    IN BRIEFAngola - US: Angola is the second largesttrading partner of the US in sub-SaharanAfrica, a US ocial said in Luanda on Jan-uary 21st.

    The deputy assistant Secretary of State forSouthern Africa, Reuben Brigety, said at theend of a meeting with the Angolan State sec-retary of Foreign Aairs, Manuel Augusto,that they discussed specic areas tostrengthen partnership such as agricultureand education and reinforce the existingcooperation in oil and trade. (PANA, Lu-anda 21 1)Cape Verde - China: China will extend aUS$80m loan to Cape Verde for social hous-ing as well as to build a sports stadium andrevamp the presidential palace. Of the totalamount, US$63m is earmarked for socialhousing projects.

    China is currently building a 15,000-seatsports stadium in Cape Verde which lies othe western African coast. The presidentialpalace in Praia has never been refurbishedsince the island nations independence fromPortugal in 1975. ( AFP 5 1 2012)DR Congo - UN: The country has receivedUS$9.1m from the United Nations CentralEmergency Response Fund (CERF) to ghto cholera, which has aected more than22,000 people and killed 500 over the past year.

    There has been a spike in cases in recentweeks, with the majority of them occurring ineastern provinces where cholera is endemic.

    The UN Childrens Fund (UNICEF) and theWorld Health Organisation (WHO) willreceive $4.4m and $4.7m, respectively, andwill work with a number of internationaland national NGOs as well as Congoleseauthorities to maximize the impact of theireorts. (UN News Service 27 1)Ethiopia - South Sudan - Djibouti: The threecountries have signed a tripartite agreementto enhance cooperation and partnership ininfrastructure development. The main areasof cooperation will be in the development ofenergy and bre optics.

    Ethiopia and South Sudan signed a furtherMoU providing for technical and economiccooperation between the two countries onthe construction of roads and railways aswell as the installation of electricity and tele-communication lines. (ENA website, AddisAbaba 3 2)Mauritania - Qatar: The two countries havesigned a raft of fresh accords to boost ties inelds such as tourism, health, nance andagriculture. Mauritanian workers will beable to go to the Middle Eastern nation.Other agreements signed deal with sustain-able development, justice, information andnance. The National Bank of Qatarrecently opened a branch in Mauritania andthe Emirs wife has nanced a social devel-opment foundation in the country to ghtilliteracy and rehabilitate youths. ( AFP5 1 2012)Morocco - EU: The EU will grant Mor-occo 30m to nance a solar power station

    (Africa Confidential 3/2)

    S U D A N

    S O U T HS U D A N

    EGYPT SAUDIARABIA

    RED SEA

    ERITREA

    ETHIOPIA

    KENYAUGANDACONGO-KINSHASA

    C.A.R.

    RW..BU..

    TANZ.

    OIL PIPELINESPROPOSEDBY AFRICAINFRASTRUCTURECONSORTIUMINC. (AIC)

    PRODUCTSPIPELINE

    GREATER NILEOIL PIPELINE

    OILFIELDS

    NAIROBI

    JUBA

    KHARTOUM

    Nile

    PortSudan

    Atbara

    L.Tana

    Blue Nile

    WhiteNile

    L.VictoriaGarissa

    Lamu

    Mombasa

    Kisumu

    Lodwar

    Kapoeta

    600 km300 miles

    Continental Developments19404 Africa Research Bulletin

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    Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2012.

  • at Ouarzazate and 7m for a water pro-ject. Ongoing talks with the EU focus onthe liberalisation of the trade of agricul-tural products and the preparation of anew action plan on the preferential statusgranted by the EU to Morocco. (PANA,Brussels 19 1)

    Refugees: Thousands of Touareg refugeeseeing clashes in northern Mali enteredMauritania in early February, escaping theghting between the Malian army and Toua-reg rebels from the National Movement forthe Liberation of Azawad (MNLA). Esti-mates suggest around 3,000 refugees accord-

    ing to humanitarian organisations.(Magharebia.com 3 2)AFP adds that around 1,500 Malians eeingthe Touareg rebellion and reprisal attacks inBamako have found refuge in Burkina Faso.Among the refugees are deserting soldiersand paramilitary forces. ( AFP 6 2 2012)

    ECONOMIC TRENDS

    DROUGHT AND FAMINEHorn of Africa Toll

    Security problems massivelycomplicate aid delivery.

    The slowness of the internationalresponse to the developing famine inthe Horn of Africa in 2011 needlesslycost thousands of lives, says a reportby Oxfam and Save the Children.Sources familiar with north-easternKenya and Somalia, however, toldAfrica Condential that they may nothave taken enough account of the mas-sive security problems. Ocial esti-mates put the total death toll in thecrisis at 50,000100,000 people. Almostall were in Somalia. It is better to drillboreholes and feed existing animals, thereport says, than to truck in water andrestock herds. Critics note that the waroften blocks such tasks.

    Much of southern Somalia, where thefamine has been at its worst, is held bythe Islamist Al Shabaab militia, whichforbade many Western aid agencies tooperate in its zones and repeatedlydenied there was famine. Even so-calledgovernment-controlled areas are danger-ous. The Kenyan intervention in Octo-ber complicated aid delivery to southernSomalia. In Mogadishu, now under thecontrol of African Union...

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