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- 1. SOUTH AFRICA
2. The Republic of South Africa is a country located at the southern tip of Africa, with a 2,798kilometers (1,739mi) coastlineon the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.To the north lie Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe; to the east are Mozambique and Swaziland; while Lesotho is an independent country wholly surrounded by South African territory
South Africa is known for a diversity in cultures and languages. Eleven official languages are recognised in the constitution.Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans, a language which originated mainly from Dutch that is spoken by the majority of white and Coloured South African, and South African English . Though English has a large role in public and commercial life, it is nevertheless only the fifth most-spoken home language
Map showing the dominant home languages in South Africa, according to Census 2001
Apartheidwas a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority non-white inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by white people was maintained.
6. Nelson Mandela & Desmond Tutu
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandelaborn 18 July 1918,served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, and was the first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheidactivist, and the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe , the armed wing of the African National Congress (ANC). In 1962 he was arrested and convicted of sabotageand other charges, and sentenced to life in prison. Mandela served 27 years in prison, spending many of these years on RobbenIsland . Following his release from prison on 11 February 1990, Mandela led his party in the negotiations that led to multi-racial democracy in 1994. As president from 1994 to 1999, he frequently gave priority to reconciliation.
Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. In 1984, Tutu became the second South African to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Tutu was the first black South African Anglican Archbishop of Cape Town, South Africa, and primateofthe Church of the Province of Southern Africa (now the Anglican Church of Southern Africa). Tutu chaired the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and is currently the chairman of The Elders. Tutu is vocal in his defence of human rights and uses his high profile to campaign for the oppressed. Tutu also campaigns to fight AIDS, tuberculosis, homophobia, poverty and racism. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984, the Albert Schweitzer Prize for Humanitarianism, the Gandhi Peace Prize in 2005 and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009.
Members of the lower house are elected on a population basis by proportional representation: half of the members are elected from national lists and the other half are elected from provincial lists. Ten members are elected to represent each province in the National Council of Provinces, regardless of the population of the province. Elections for both chambers are held every five years. The government is formed in the lower house, and the leader of the majority party in the National Assembly is the President.
South Africa is a nation of about 50million people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions. The last census was held in 2001 and the next will be in 2011. Statistics South Africa provided five racial categories by which people could classify themselves, the last of which, "unspecified/other" drew negligible responses, and these results were omitted. The 2009 midyear estimated figures for the other categories were Black African at 79.3%,White at 9.1%, Coloured at 9.0%, and Indian or Asian at 2.6%.
According to the 2001 national census, Christians accounted for 79.7% of the population. This includes Zion Christian (11.1%), Pentecostal (Charismatic ) (8.2%), Roman Catholic (7.1%), Methodist (6.8%), Dutch Reformed(6.7%), Anglican (3.8%); members of other Christian churches accounted for another 36% of the population. Muslimsaccounted for 1.5% of the population, Hindus about 1.3%, and Judaism 0.2%. 15.1% had no religious affiliation, 2.3% were other and 1.4% were unspecified.
South Africa's most popular sports are soccer, rugby union and cricket.