Soil moisture sensor byauto irrigation system2

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  1. 1. SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR BYAUTO IRRIGATION SYSTEM A MAJOR PROJECT REPORT PLANING & LITERATURE SURVEY Submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya (R.G.P.V) In the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING By RAJKAPUR KUMAR 0187EX111038 MANORANJAN KUMAR 0187EX111026 KISHAN KUMAR 0187EX111023 RITESHKUMAR 0187EX111043 OMPRAKASH KUMAR 0187EX111034 Under the guidance of Prof. MONIKA SINGH RANA DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEEING SAGAR INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Bhopal (M.P.) BATCH 2011-15
  2. 2. CANDIDATES DECLARATION I hereby declare that the work, which is being presented in this project entitled SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR BY AUTO IRRIGATION SYSTEM in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electrical & Electronics. The work has been carried out at Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Sagar Institute of Science & Technology (SISTec) Bhopal. It is an authentic record of my work carried out under the guidance of Prof. Monika Singh Rana, Department of Electrical & Electronics SISTec, Bhopal. I have not submitted the matter embodied in this project for the award of any other degree or diploma. Rajkapur kumar 0187ex111038 Manoranjan kumar 0187ex111026 Kishan kumar 0187ex111023 Ritesh kumar 0187ex111043 Omprakash kumar 0187ex111034
  3. 3. CONTENTS 1. ABSTRACT..1 2. INTRODUCTION.......................................................................2 3. HARD WARE EQUIPMENTS.......................................................3 4. BLOCK DIAGRAM.4 5. POWER SUPPLY............................................................4 6. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM.................................................6 7. SENSOR...................................................................................7 8. MICROCONTROLLER(ATMEGA8L)................................9 9. LCD...........................................................................................12 10. RELAYS .......................................................................14 11. ADVANTAGE .16 12. FUTURE SCOPE......................................16 13. CONCLUSION.17 14. REFERENCES..17
  4. 4. ABSTRACT Appropriate soil water level is a necessary pre-requisite for optimum plant growth. Also, water being an essential element for life sustenance, there is the necessity to avoid its undue usage. Irrigation is a dominant consumer of water. This calls for the need to regulate water supply for irrigation purposes. Fields should neither be over-irrigated nor under-irrigated. Over time, systems have been implemented towards realizing this objective of which automated processes are the most popular as they allow information to be collected at high frequency with less labor requirements. Bulk of the existing systems employ micro-processor based systems. These systems offer several technological advantages but are unaffordable, bulky, difficult to maintain and less accepted by the technologically unskilled workers in the rural scenario. The objective of this project is to design a simple, easy to install methodology to monitor and indicate the level of soil moisture that is continuously controlled in order to achieve maximum plant growth and simultaneously optimize the available irrigation resources. Project mainly focuses on measuring the soil moisture and measuring the Humidity . SISTec Page1
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION Agriculture, for decades, had been associated with the production of basic food crops. Agriculture and farming were synonymous so long as farming was not commercialized. But as the process of economic development accelerated, many more other occupations allied to farming came to be recognized as a part of agriculture. At present, agriculture besides farming includes forestry, fruit cultivation, dairy, poultry, mushroom, bee keeping, arbitrary, etc. Today, marketing, processing, distribution of agricultural products etc. are all accepted as a part of modern agriculture. Thus, agriculture need the mass production for economy growth. So need fast production with balance parameter like water level humidity fertilizers level and other thing for the good quality of crops. Here present the concept of autonomous agriculture. In that the humidity of soil is measure by the sensor and it maintain as per crops requirement. SISTec Page 2
  6. 6. HARD WARE EQUIPMENTS POWER SUPPLY BLOCK MICROCONTROLLER (ATMEGA8L) LCD HUMIDITY SENSOR BC547 TRANSISTOR RELAY 1N4007 LED RESISTORS & CAPACITORS SISTec Page 3
  7. 7. BLOCK DIAGRAM POWER SUPPLY: - The input to the circuit is applied from the regulated power supply. The a.c. input i.e., 230V from the mains supply is step down by the transformer to 12V and is fed to a rectifier. The output obtained from the rectifier is a pulsating d.c voltage. So in order to get a pure d.c voltage, the output voltage from the rectifier is fed to a filter to remove any a.c components present even after rectification. Now, this voltage is given to a voltage regulator to obtain a pure constant dc voltage. Transformer: - Usually, DC voltages are required to operate various electronic equipment and these voltages are 5V, 9V or 12V. But these voltages cannot be obtained directly. Thus the a.c input available at the mains supply i.e., 230V is to be brought down to the required voltage level. This is done by a transformer. Thus, a step down transformer is employed to decrease the voltage to a required level. SISTec Page 4 Humidity sensor Microcontroller Relay Motor Pump
  8. 8. Rectifier: - The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification. The Bridge rectifier is a circuit, which converts an ac voltage to dc voltage using both half cycles of the input ac voltage. The Bridge rectifier circuit is shown in the figure. The circuit has four diodes connected to form a bridge. The ac input voltage is applied to the diagonally opposite ends of the bridge. The load resistance is connected between the other two ends of the bridge. For the positive half cycle of the input ac voltage, diodes D1 and D3 conduct, whereas diodes D2 and D4 remain in the OFF state. The conducting diodes will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the load current flows through RL. For the negative half cycle of the input ac voltage, diodes D2 and D4 conduct whereas, D1 and D3 remain OFF. The conducting diodes D2 and D4 will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the current flows through RL in the same direction as in the previous half cycle. Thus a bi-directional wave is converted into a unidirectional wave. Filter: - Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received at this point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage. Voltage regulator: - As the name itself implies, it regulates the input applied to it. A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. In this project, power supply of 5V and 12V are required. In order to obtain these voltage levels, 7805 and 7812 voltage regulators are to be used. The first number 78 represents positive supply and the numbers 05, 12 represent the required output voltage levels. The L78xx series of three-terminal positive regulators is available in TO-220, TO-220FP, TO-3, D2PAK and DPAK packages and several fixed output voltages, making it useful in a wide range of applications. SISTec Page 5
  9. 9. These regulators can provide local on-card regulation, eliminating the distribution problems associated with single point regulation. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut-down and safe area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1 A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltage and currents. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM SISTec Page 6
  10. 10. SENSORS A sensor is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an (today mostly electronic) instrument. A sensor is a device, which responds to an input quantity by generating a functionally related output usually in the form of an electrical or optical signal. A sensor's sensitivity indicates how much the sensor's output changes when the measured quantity changes. Soil moisture sensor: Working Principle Soil moisture sensors measure the water content in soil. All plants need water to grow and survive. Soil moisture sensors used to determine how much water are needed to irrigate the plants. Humidity and Temperature Sensor (DHT11) Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Water vapor is the gaseous state of water and is invisible. Humidity indicates the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog. Humidity sensors detect the relative humidity of the immediate environments in which they are placed. They measure both the moisture and temperature in the air and express relative humidity as a percentage of the ratio of moisture in the air to the maximum amount that can be held in the air at the current temperature. As air becomes hotter, it holds more moisture, so the relative humidity changes with the temperature. Most humidity sensors use capacitive measurement to determine the amount of moisture in the air. This type of