Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution

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<ul><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 1/31</p><p>Soil, marine ,noise and</p><p>thermal pollution</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 2/31</p><p>Soil</p><p> Formation of soil from the parent material (bedrock):</p><p>mechanical weathering of rocks by temperaturechanges, abrasion, wind, moving water, glaciers,chemical weathering activities and lichens.</p><p> Under ideal climatic conditions, soft parent materialmay develop into 1 cm of soil within 15 years.</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 3/31</p><p> O-horizon: freshly-fallen &amp; partially-decomposed leaves, twigs, animalwaste, fungi &amp; organic materials.Colour: brown or black.</p><p>A-horizon: humus/partiallydecomposed organic matter &amp; someinorganic mineral particles. darker &amp;looser than the deeper layers.</p><p> O &amp; A-horizon: contain a largeamount of bacteria, fungi, earthworms,small insects, forms complex food web</p><p>in soil, recycles soil nutrients, &amp;contribute to soil fertility.</p><p> B-horizon /(subsoil): less organicmaterial &amp; fewer organisms than A-horizon.</p><p> C-horizon: consists of broken-up</p><p>bedrock, does not contain any organicmaterials. Chemical composition helpsto determine pH of soil &amp; alsoinfluences soils rate of waterabsorption &amp; retention.</p><p> R-horizon: The unweathered rock</p><p>(bedrock) layer that is beneath all theother layers</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 4/31</p><p>Soil Pollution</p><p>Soil pollution is caused by the presence of chemicals or other</p><p>alteration in the natural soil environment.</p><p>Resulting in a change of the soil quality</p><p>likely to affect the normal use of the soil or endangering publichealth and the living environment.</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 5/31</p><p>CAUSES OF SOIL DEGRADATION</p><p> Soil erosion/degradation is the loss of top soil</p><p>erodes fertility of soil &amp; reduces its water-holding</p><p>capacity.</p><p> Excessive farming, construction, overgrazing,</p><p>burning of grass cover and deforestation</p><p> Excess salts and water (Salinization)</p><p> Excessive use of fertilizers &amp; pesticides</p><p> Solid waste</p><p>:</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 6/31</p><p>First effect of pollutants Washed away: might accumulates somewhere</p><p> Evaporate: can be a source of air pollution Infiltrate through the unsaturated soil to the</p><p>groundwater</p><p> DDT: fat soluble, stored in fatty tissues</p><p> Interferes with calcium metabolism Results in thin egg shells in birds</p><p> Agent orange: code name for one of the herbicidesand defoliants (results in leaf fall) used by the U.S.</p><p>military as part of its herbicidal warfare program, Duringthe Vietnam War, between 1962 and 1971, the United States militarysprayed 20,000,000US gallons (80,000,000 L) of chemical herbicides</p><p>and defoliants in Vietnam anti fertility, skin problems, cancer</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 7/31</p><p>Control of soil pollution</p><p>Use of pesticides and fertilizers should be minimized. Cropping techniques should be improved to prevent</p><p>growth of weeds.</p><p> Special pits should be selected for dumping wastes.</p><p> Controlled grazing and forest management.</p><p> Wind breaks and wind shield in areas exposed to wind</p><p>erosion</p><p> Afforestation and reforestation.</p><p> 3 Rs: reduce, reuse, recycle</p><p>7</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 8/31</p><p>Information needed to clean up materials added to soil</p><p>Kind of material-organic or inorganic- is the material</p><p>biodegradable/ dangerous to animals &amp; humans</p><p>How much materialwas added to the soil, will it overload</p><p>the organisms in the soil</p><p>C:N ratio of the pollutant material</p><p>Nature of soil: will the soil be able to handle the material</p><p>before groundwater is contaminated</p><p>Growing conditions for the soil organisms:- is it too cold,</p><p>too wet etc.</p><p>How long the material has been on site: is there evidence</p><p>of environmental problems, is it undergoing decomposition.</p><p>Immediate danger to people &amp; environment: Urgency of</p><p>the situation.</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 9/31</p><p>Bioremediation</p><p> The use of naturally occuring microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi &amp;</p><p>plants to break down or degrade toxic chemical compounds that have</p><p>accumulated in the environment</p><p> It is a method that treats the soils and renders them non-hazardous, thus</p><p>eliminating any future liability that may result from landfill problems or</p><p>violations.</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 10/31</p><p>Factors affecting bioremediation</p><p> Microbial factors</p><p> Temperature favorable for organisms</p><p> Availability of water (Moisture content)</p><p> Availability of nutrients (N,P,K)</p><p> C: N (carbon: nitrogen) ratio of the contaminant</p><p>material&lt; 30:1</p><p> pH</p><p> Availability of Oxygen in sufficient quantity in soil.</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 11/31</p><p> In situ Bioremediation : The treatment in</p><p>place without excavation of contaminated</p><p>soils or sediments. Ex situ bioremediation: requires pumping</p><p>of the groundwater or excavation of</p><p>contaminated soil prior to remediationtreatments.</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 12/31</p><p>Types ofIn situ Bioremediation</p><p> Biostimulation: To stimulate the activity of microorganismsby adding nutrients and electron acceptors (e.g. O2)</p><p> Bioventing: Injecting air through soil to stimulate microbegrowth in unsaturated zone</p><p> Biosparging: Injection of air/nutrients into unsaturated andsaturated zones</p><p> Bioaugmentation: inoculation of soil with microbes oradding exogenous microbes to the subsurface</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 13/31</p><p>In-situ-Bioremediation</p><p> Biostimulation(stimulatesbiological activity)</p><p> Bioventing(Inject</p><p>air/nutrients intounsaturated zone goodfor midweight petroleum,jet fuel)</p><p> Biosparging(Inject</p><p>air/nutrients intounsaturated andsaturated zones)</p><p> Bioaugmentation(inoculates soilwith microbes)</p><p>Less expensive Creates less dust Less possibility of contaminant</p><p>release into environment</p><p>Good for large volumes</p><p>Slower</p><p>Doesnt work well in clays or</p><p>highly layered subsurfaces</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 14/31</p><p>Biostimulation</p><p>Biosparging</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 15/31</p><p>Ex-situ -Bioremediation Slurry-phase-Soil combined with</p><p>water/additives in tank,</p><p>microorganisms, nutrients,oxygen added</p><p> Solid-phase</p><p> Land-farming: soil put on pad,leachate collected</p><p> Soil biopiles: soil heaped, airadded</p><p> Composting: biodegradable wastemixed with bulking agent</p><p> Land Applied waste addeddirectly to soil which is later</p><p>planted to a crop.</p><p>Easier tocontrol</p><p>Used to treatwider range ofcontaminantsand soil types</p><p>CostlyFaster</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 16/31</p><p>Advantages of Using Bioremediation Processes</p><p>Compared With Other Remediation Technologies</p><p>(1) biologically-based remediation detoxifies hazardous substancesinstead of merely transferring contaminants from on environmentalmedium to another;</p><p>(2) bioremediation is generally less disruptive to the environment than</p><p>excavation-based processes; and</p><p>(3) The cost of treating a hazardous waste site using bioremediationtechnologies can be considerably lower than that for conventionaltreatment methods: vacuuming, absorbing, burning, dispersing, or</p><p>moving the material .</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 17/31</p><p>Marine pollution</p><p> The introduction by man, directly, or indirectly, of</p><p>substances or energy to the marine environment</p><p>resulting in deleterious effects such as: hazards to</p><p>human health, hindrance to marine activities, impairment</p><p>of the quality of seawater for various uses and reductionof amenities.</p><p> Does not include natural processes like volcanic</p><p>eruptions or earthquakes</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 18/31</p><p>Marine pollutants</p><p> Agricultural run offs ((herbicides, pesticides andnutrients)</p><p> Sediments</p><p> Sewage (Faecal Coliform and Pathogens) Chemicals, Metals and Radioactive Substances</p><p> Persistent toxins (PCBs, DDT, heavy metals)</p><p> Oil</p><p> Plastics</p><p> Energy (Thermal &amp; light)</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 19/31</p><p>Sources of marine pollutionLand sources</p><p> 80% of non-biological marine pollution comes from land based</p><p>activities pipes discharging directly into marine waters(sewage,</p><p>industrial, chemical and food processing wastes)</p><p> Riverine flows into the sea carry pollutants from the entirecatchment area.</p><p>From Air</p><p> Global atmospheric inputs to the sea from air discharges</p><p>Oil spills and offshore sources</p><p> Oily discharges from ballast water and bilge water during</p><p>routine ship operations and illegal dumping of solid waste Designated dumping grounds at sea</p><p> Accidental spills from Ships carrying hazardous substances, oil,gas etc.</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 20/31</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 21/31 </p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 22/31</p><p>Control measures for oil pollution</p><p> Natural process of emulsification of oil by</p><p>use of chemical dispersants: can besprayed on the oil.</p><p> Slick-lickers: continuous belt of absorbent</p><p>material dips through the oil slick &amp; ispassed through rollers to extract oil.</p><p> Rocks can be cleaned with high pressure</p><p>steam</p><p>Effects of marine poll tion</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 23/31</p><p>Effects of marine pollution:</p><p> Effects on sea life</p><p> Effects on birds</p><p> Effects on human being</p><p> Health</p><p> Business</p><p> Eutrophication and development ofred tides (phytoplankton</p><p>blooms carrying red pigmentation)</p><p>Development ofoil slick: When oil is spilled on sea, it spreadsover the surface forming a thin film called OIL SLICK. Which</p><p>damage marine life</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 24/31</p><p> Damages marine life to a large extent, for salt-marsh plants, oil</p><p>slicks can affect flowering, fruiting and germination.</p><p> Coral reefs</p><p> If liquid oil contaminates a birds plumage, its water-repellentproperties are lost, drown, die</p><p> Drill cuttings dumped on seabed create anoxic conditions &amp; result inthe production of toxic sulphides in the bottom sediment thuseliminating the benthic fauna.</p><p> Fish and shellfish production facilities can also be affected by oilslicks. Commercial damage is tainting: imparts an unpleasant flavorto fish and seafood &amp; is detectable even at extremely low levels ofcontamination.</p><p>Effects of marine pollution</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 25/31</p><p>NOISE POLLUTION Defined as unwanted sounds that</p><p>unreasonably (a kind of harsh, loud andconfused sound), intruding into our daily</p><p>activities</p><p> The most significant attributes of noise are:i) Its loudness</p><p>ii) Duration</p><p> The unit of noise is decibel.</p><p> Human ear can tolerate noise up to 120</p><p>decibels.</p><p>S f NOISE POLLUTION</p>;imgrefurl=;usg=__k2VIcGqNIc3pbIU9wVJeBh_f3ek=&amp;h=450&amp;w=460&amp;sz=43&amp;hl=en&amp;start=3&amp;um=1&amp;tbnid=Wiv1xrh6E3sF7M:&amp;tbnh=125&amp;tbnw=128&amp;prev=/images%3Fq%3Dnoise%2Bpollution%2Bimages%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26um%3D1</li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 26/31</p><p>Sources of NOISE POLLUTION(i) Road Traffic:</p><p>Most prevalent and most damaging source</p><p>Impact of road traffic noise depends on factors like: road location &amp; design,and land useplanning measures, building design,vehicle standards &amp; driving behavior</p><p>(ii) Air Traffic</p><p>Noise from supersonic crafts are dangerous because of its intensity</p><p>(iii) Railways:</p><p>The level of noise associated with rail traffic is related to type of engine or rolling stock</p><p>used, speed of the train, track type &amp; condition, warning signals at crossings, whistles &amp;</p><p>horns, freight classification yards, &amp; railroad construction &amp; maintenance.</p><p>(iv) Industry</p><p> Product fabrication</p><p> Product assembly</p><p> Power generation Processing.</p><p>(v) Construction: construction equipments.</p><p>(vi) Consumer products: recreational, hobbies/workshop, household, music.</p><p>(vii) Other sources: sirens, agricultural noise, noise from animals, humans &amp; military</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 27/31</p><p>Measurement of Noise</p><p> Noise intensity is measured in decibel (Db) units Decibel scale is logarithmic,</p><p> Each 10 Db increase represents a 10 fold increase innoise intensity</p><p> distance diminishes the effective decibel level reachingthe ear.</p><p>e.g. Moderate auto traffic at a distance of 30 m ratesabout 50 decibels, but for the same, for a driver with acar window open or a pedestrian on the sidewalk, sametraffic rates about 70 decibels.</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 28/31</p><p>Effects of Noise</p><p> At 45 decibels of noise, average person cannot sleep,</p><p> At 85 decibels hearing damage, &amp; at 120 decibels ear</p><p>experiences pain.</p><p> Lack of sleep, irritability, heartburn, indigestion, ulcers, high blood</p><p>pressure, &amp; possibly heart disease Hearing loss</p><p> Non-auditory physiological effects</p><p> Annoyance</p><p> Communication interference</p><p>N i P ll ti C t l</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 29/31</p><p>Noise Pollution ControlSource path receiver concept: Can be controlled either</p><p>by reducing the noise at the source orby preventing</p><p>its transmission orby protecting the receiver</p><p> At the source: lubrication of machines, tightening theloose units, reducing the eccentricity</p><p> In the path: keeping the noisy machine covered,construction of noise barriers, sound-proofing of thebuilding</p><p>Receiver: No use of horns other than in emergency,vehicle engines and appliances in good Condition,purchase the least noisy air conditioner or vacuumcleaner/quieter appliances, rest areas away fromnoise, turn down volume of Stereos.</p><p>Th l P ll ti</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 30/31</p><p>Thermal Pollution Thermal pollution is the process of heating up of water</p><p>bodies through run off or discharge</p><p> Decreases the solubility of oxygen, resulting in suffocationof plants and animals</p><p> Human activities introducing thermal pollution: Industries and power plants</p><p> Trees and tall vegetation providing shades are cut down</p><p> Soil erosion by construction, removal of stream side vegetation,farming practices, overgrazing &amp; recreation increases reduction ingreen</p><p> Thermal pollution can also occur through Earthquakes</p></li><li><p>7/29/2019 Soil, Marine ,Noise and Thermal Pollution</p><p> 31/31</p><p>Effects of Thermal Pollution</p><p> Thermal shock</p><p> Thermal enrichment: Heated water from power plant</p><p>may be used to extend plant growing season, speed up</p><p>growth of fish and other aquatic animal for commercial</p><p>purpose</p></li></ul>