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  • AAsssseessssmmeenntt GGuuiiddee PPrriimmaarryy AAggrriiccuullttuurree

    SSooiill ffeerrttiilliittyy aanndd ppllaanntt nnuuttrriittiioonn

    pprraaccttiicceess

    NQF Level: 4 US No: 116311

    The availability of this product is due to the financial support of the National Department of Agriculture and the AgriSETA.

    Assessor: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Workplace / Company: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Commodity: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Date: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  • Implement Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Practices

    Primary Agriculture NQF Level 4 Unit Standard No: 116311 22

    Version: 01 Version Date: July 2006

    BBeeffoorree wwee ssttaarrtt his assessment guide contains all necessary activities and instructions that will enable the assessor and

    learner to gather evidence of the learners competence as required by the unit standard. This guide was designed to be used by a trained and accredited assessor whom is registered to assess this specific unit standard as per the requirements of the AgriSETA ETQA.

    Prior to the delivery of the program the facilitator and assessor must familiarise themselves with content of this guide, as well as the content of the relevant Learner Workbook.

    The assessor, facilitator and learner must plan the assessment process together, in order to offer the learner the maximum support, and the opportunity to reflect competence.

    The policies and procedures that are required during the application of this assessment are available on the website of the AgriSETA and should be strictly adhered to. The assessor must familiarise him/herself with this document before proceeding.

    This guide provides step-by-step instructions for the assessment process of:

    This unit standard is one of the building blocks in the qualification listed below. Please mark the qualification you are currently assessing, because that will be determined by the context of application:

    Title ID Number NQF Level Credits Mark

    National Certificate in Animal Production 48979 4 120

    National Certificate in Plant Production 49009 4 120

    Please mark the learning program you are enrolled in:

    TT

    Title: Implement Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Practices

    US No: 116311 NQF Level: 4 Credits: 3

    Are you enrolled in a: Y N

    Learnership?

    Skills Program?

    Short Course?

    PPlleeaassee NNoottee::

    This Unit Standard 116311 Assessment Guide must be read in conjunction with the generic Assessor Guide as prescribed and published by the AgriSETA.

    NNoottee ttoo AAsssseessssoorr::

    If you are assessing this module as part of a full qualification or learnership, please ensure that you have familiarized yourself with the content of the qualification.

  • Implement Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Practices

    Primary Agriculture NQF Level 4 Unit Standard No: 116311 33

    Version: 01 Version Date: July 2006

    Use the information supplied below to complete the questionnaire.

    FERTILISATION PROGRAM CITRUS

    Orchard: Orchard 10 Size: 3.0ha

    Cultivar/Variety:

    Delta Valencias Trees per ha: 100

    Fertiliser Quantity Time of Application

    Soil Applications g per tree

    Limestone Ammonium Nitrate (LAN) 500g July

    LAN 250g August

    LAN 100g September

    Potassium Chloride (KCL) 500g September

    Potassium Chloride (KCL) 250g October

    Dolomitic Lime 4000g October

    Foliar Sprays g per 100l water

    Low Biuret Urea 1000g July

    Manganese Sulphate 200g October

    Zinc Nitrate (5%) 150ml October

    Solubor 150g October

    Remarks:

    1. Manganese, Zinc nitrate and Solubor are compatible. 2. Spread the lime over the entire area allocated per tree. 3. Apply 10 litres of the spraying solution per tree.

    Instructions to learner:

    Brainstorming 11..11SSOO 11 Learner Guide: Page 23 Facilitator Guide: Page 12

  • Implement Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Practices

    Primary Agriculture NQF Level 4 Unit Standard No: 116311 44

    Version: 01 Version Date: July 2006

    Develop a soil and foliar application program for orchard 10.

    Model Answer(s): FERTILISATION PROGRAM FOR SOIL APPLICATIONS FOR ORCHARD 10 (GRAMS PER TREE)

    Fertiliser Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total

    LAN 500 250 100

    KCl 500 250

    Dolomitic lime

    4 000

    FERTILISATION PROGRAM FOR FOLIAR SPRAYS FOR ORCHARD 10 (GRAMS OR MILLILITRE PER 100 LITRES WATER)

    Chemical Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total

    Low Biuret Urea

    1 000 g

    Manganese Sulphate

    200 g

    Zinc Nitrate (5%)

    150 ml

    Solubor 150 g

    1. What is the total mass LAN required in July for orchard 10?

    Model Answer(s): 500 g per tree and there is 100 trees per ha and there is 3 ha = 500 g * 100 * 3 =150 000 g or 150 kg LAN in total

    2. What is the total mass of potassium chloride required for the orchard?

    Model Answer(s): 500 g in September and 250 g in October per tree = 750 g in total per tree. For the 3 ha field with 100 trees per ha = 750 g * 100 * 3

    =225 000 g or 225 kg KCl in total

  • Implement Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Practices

    Primary Agriculture NQF Level 4 Unit Standard No: 116311 55

    Version: 01 Version Date: July 2006

    3. How many litres of zinc nitrate must be ordered for orchard 10?

    Model Answer(s): 2 500 l are necessary per ha and you mix 150 ml per 100 l water. 2 500 l / 100 l = 25 times * 150 ml per 100 l = 3 750 ml per ha and there is 3 ha

    3 ha* 3 750 ml per ha = 11 250 ml or 11.25 l of Zinc nitrate (5%) in total.

    4. If the only zinc nitrate available contains 10% Zn, what will the application rate be?

    Model Answer(s): The zinc nitrate used for previous question contained 5% Zn, while the zinc nitrate available contains 10% Zn, therefore you would half the amount of zinc nitrate necessary. 150 ml / 2 = 75 ml Zinc nitrate (10%) per 100 l water.

    MMyy NNootteess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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  • Implement Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Practices

    Primary Agriculture NQF Level 4 Unit Standard No: 116311 66

    Version: 01 Version Date: July 2006

    In the fertilizer example for sunflower, it was indicated that you would need 22 kg N, 11 kg P and 10 kg K per ha and that translated in buying 117 kg 2:3:2 (22%), 14 kg 1:0:1 (36%) and 43 kg LAN per ha. Redo the problem and see if you get to the same answers. The fertilizer requirements are for one ha, how much of each fertilizer type would you have to buy for 100 ha? Clearly show all calculations.

    Model Answer(s): The learner should get to the same answer of 22 kg N, 11 kg P and 10 kg K per ha. P has to be applied before or with plant, therefore one first have to calculate how much of the P containing fertilizer to apply. N and K containing fertilizers can be top dressed later and we do not worry about it just yet. How much 232 (22%)? In 232, there is 7 parts of N, P and K or in other words there is 22 kg NPK in a 100 kg 232. How much is then N or P or K? 2 of the 7 parts are N, thus 2/7 * 22 kg = 6.3 kg N and the same amount of K. 3 of the 7 parts are P, thus 3/7 * 22 kg = 9.4 kg P In summary then in 100 kg 232 (22%) there is 6.3 kg N, 9.4 kg P and 6.3 kg K. The sum of these three elements gets you back to 22. This is a check to make sure you have calculated the amount of N, P and K correctly. If you can get 9.4 kg P when buying 100 kg 232, how many kg 232 do you have to buy to get 11 kg P per ha? (100 kg 232 / 9.4 kg P) * 11 kg P ha-1 = 117 kg 232 needed per ha. But remember there are also some N and K in the 117 kg 232, but how much? If there is 6.3 kg N in 100 kg 232, how many kg is in 117 kg 232? (6.3 kg N / 100 kg 232) * 117 kg 232 = 7.4 kg N and also 7.4 kg of K. In summary then If you buy 117 kg 232 (22%) you get 11 kg of P, 7.4 kg of N and 7.4 kg of K. Which fertilizer should be calculated next? There is only one fertilizer left which can supply K and two which can supply N, therefore one will go for the fertilizer containing the K, as any additional N needed can be made up with the fertilizer only containing N. Therefore we calculate the amount of 101 (36%) required. How much 101 (36%)? In a 100 kg there is 2 parts N and K and no P. There is thus 18 kg N and 18 kg K in a 100 kg of 101 (36%). As explained there is no other K source, so the amount of 101 have to fulfil in the K requirement for the crop field. We determined that we would need 10 kg K per ha for the field. We already have 7.4 kg K when buying 117 kg 232, so we need 10 kg K 7.4 kg K = 2.6 kg K. We can get 18 kg K when buying a 100 kg 101, so how many kg of 101 do we have to buy when we need only 2.6 kg K? (100 kg 101 / 18 kg K) * 2.6 kg K = 14 kg 101 needed per ha When buying 14 kg of 101, we get 2.6 kg of K but also 2.6 kg of N

    Instructions to learner:

    Questionnaire. 11..22 SSOO 11

    Learner Guide: Page 24 Facilitator Guide: Page 12

  • Implement Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Practices

    Primary Agriculture NQF Level 4 Unit Standard No: 116311 77

    Version: 01 Version Date: July 2006

    Now we have to make up the required amount of N by using LAN (28%). How much LAN (28%)? This is a straight fertilizer and not a mixture, thus there is 28 kg N in every 100 kg LAN we buy. How much N do we still need? From the tables we determined we needed 22 kg N. We go 7.4 kg N from 117 kg 232 and 2.6 kg N from 14 kg 101. Thus: 22 kg N 7.4 kg N 2.6 kg N = 12 kg N still needed. (100 kg LAN / 28 kg N) * 12 kg N = 43 kg LAN needed per ha How much 232, 101 and LAN needed for 100 ha? 117 kg 232 per ha * 100 ha = 11 700 kg or 11.7 t 232 for 100 ha 14 kg 101 per ha * 100 ha = 1 400 kg or 1.4 t 101 for 100 ha 43 kg LAN per ha * 100 ha = 4 300 kg or 4.3 t LAN for 100 ha

    1. If the sunflowers were planted on field two, instead of field one, how would it affect the P and K requirement? Why would it affect the requirements?

    Model Answer(s):

    The soil in field two contains more P and K than the soil in field one. Therefore one would need less P and K containing fertilizers.

    2. If the sunflowers were cultivated with irrigation, how would it affect the N, P and K requirements for field number one? Why would it affect the requirements?

    Model Answer(s): With irrigation the yield potential would be higher and also the number of plants per ha. Therefore more N, P and K would be required.

    3. If you did not check the fertilizer stock levels and or did not place an order on time and the only fertilizers available from the supplier is: 1:0:1 (40%), ammonium sulphate (21% N), potassium nitrate (13% N and 38%K) and super phosphate (10.5% P).

    How much of these fertilizers would you buy to fulfil in the fertilizer program set out for field one? Now compile a fertilizer programme for field one, using these new fertilizers.

    Model Answer(s): We start with Super phosphate (10.5%) because it is the only fertilizer containing P. We would need (100 kg SuperP / 10.5 kg P) * 11 kg P = 105 kg Super P per ha Potassium nitrate is the only K containing fertilizer We would need (100 kg KNO3 / 38 kg K) * 10 kg K = 26 kg KNO3 per ha In 26 kg NO3 there is (13 kg N / 100 kg NO3) * 26 kg NO3 = 3.4 kg N Now we need to determine the amount of NH4SO4 which contains only N We still need 22 kg N 3.4 kg N = 18.6 kg N

    We would need (100 kg NH4SO4 / 21 kg N) * 18.6 kg N = 89 kg NH4SO4 per ha

  • Implement Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Practices

    Primary Agriculture NQF Level 4 Unit Standard No: 116311 88

    Version: 01 Version Date: July 2006

    1. Name four soil properties that will determine the suitability of a soil for a specific crop, cultivated in your area. Note the reasons why these properties are important in a table similar to the one shown below. Also discuss the term stratification as used in describing the soil profile.

    Model Answer(s): Make sure the crop is relevant in the area. The properties can be any of the following with an applicable reason as why the

    learner thinks it is important for that specific crop. Soil depth, drainage, infiltration rate, pH, water holding capacity, soil aeration,

    erosion risk, clay content, structure and compaction, slope, stratification, salt content, nutrient content and nutrient deficiencies or toxicities.

    2. Discuss the term stratification as used in describing the soil profile.

    Model Answer(s): Soil is stratified when layers of vastly different textures are deposited on top of

    each other. The thickness of the layers varies from a few millimetres to several centimetres. These differences in texture prevent the free flow of water and restrict root-

    growth.

    Instructions to learner:

    Brainstorming 22 SSOO 22

    Learner Guide: Page 29 Facilitator Guide: Page 13

  • Implement Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Practices

    Primary Agriculture NQF Level 4 Unit Standard No: 116311 99

    Version: 01 Version Date: July 2006

    Answer the following questions for citrus:

    1. Name two reasons why citrus trees will drop leaves before the lifecycle of the leaves are completed.

    Model Answer(s): Due to a N and Mg shortage.

    2. When looking at a citrus tree, how will you know that the tree is lacking nitrogen?

    Model Answer(s): The entire tree is a slightly lighter green than normal. Twigs have leaves at the tips and few or none at the middle or base. The tree is sparsely foliated with only one or two generations of leaves

    3. Why can leaf analysis not always indicate the exact magnesium status of a citrus orchard or tree?

    Model Answer(s): The magnesium concentration in the leaf decreases but stabilises at a level in the below normal range, not indicating that this status is sustained by relocated magnesium from leaves dropped prematurely. The leaves on the tree have a reasonable magnesium status but this fairly good status will only be applicable too much fewer leaves.

    4. Describe the preferred method to correct an iron deficiency.

    Model Answer(s): Iron deficiency in citrus is best rectified by an application of an appropriate chelate to the soil, preferably during August.

    5. Leaf sampling of citrus during July to January has limited value. Give two reasons.

    Model Answer(s): Citrus fertiliser application occurs during this period. Leaf sample analyses would provide incorrect data.

    Instructions to learner:

    Brainstorm 33..11 SSOO 33

    Learner Guide: Page 43 Facilitator Guide: Page 14

  • Implement Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Practices

    Primary Agriculture NQF Level 4 Unit Standard No: 116311 1100

    Version: 01 Version Date: July 2006

    Inspect the plant material provided and answer the following questions.

    a) Identify the deficiency symptoms on the plant material provided.

    Model Answer(s): Correctly identify the deficiencies

    b) Explain how you will verify the deficiency.

    Model Answer(s): Taking of leaf samples and asking the lab to analyse for the element(s) the learner think is deficient.

    c) Compile a program to rectify the problem, at present and in the future.

    Model Answer(s): Based on the deficiency, the student should indicate that the situation can be rectified at present by applying a foliar spray containing the deficient nutrient. To prevent future problems, soil and foliar analysis should be conducted. It maybe that a soil condition, for example too high or too low pH, excessive availability of other nutrients etc. are causing the particular deficiency, and before that is not rectified, the particular deficiency cannot be addressed.

    MMyy NNootteess

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    Instructions to learner:

    Explore, Explain and Plan 33..22 SSOO 33

    Learner Guide: Page 43 Facilitator Guide: Page 14

  • Implement Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Practices

    Primary Agriculture NQF Level 4 Unit Standard No: 116311 1111

    Version: 01 Version Date: July 2006

    Brainstorm with your partner(s) and answer the following questions.

    1. Name three considerations when deciding on soil preparation for

    a) citrus

    b) cabbages

    Model Answer(s): a) citrus

    - soil depth - stratification - pH

    b) cabbage drainage pH soil borne diseases and nematodes.

    2. Define and describe ridging for:

    a) Citrus

    b) Potatoes

    Model Answer(s): a) Citrus - When the depth of suitable soil is limited, the soil from the inter-row

    spaces can be moved to the area where the trees will be planted, thus excavating the vehicle paths and filling the planting area with more suitable soil. This creates ridges of suitable soil.

    b) Potatoes In potatoes, however, ridging is often done twice. First before plant and the second time after the plants have reached a height of 30 to 50 cm. The bottom 20 cm of the plant is then covered with soil coming from between the rows. In this case ridging, or also called earthing up, is done to cover the tubers, and protect the tubers against attacks from the potato tuber moth and some tuber diseases.

    Instructions to learner:

    Brainstorming 44..11 SSOO 44

    Learner Guide: Page 52 Facilitator Guide: Page 15

  • Implement Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Practices

    Primary Agriculture NQF Level 4 Unit Standard No: 116311 1122

    Version: 01 Version Date: July 2006

    3. What is conservation tillage? What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of zero till?

    Model Answer(s): Conservation tillage is any type of soil preparation which restricts the use of soil

    disturbance. Advantages of zero till smaller implement range, less vehicle movement over the

    area Disadvantages of zero till more specialized implements needed, depended on

    chemical control of weeds

    4. Name three advantages and two disadvantages of ridging in general. What implements are needed for ridging?

    Model Answer(s): The purpose and advantages of ridging are:

    Improvement in surface drainage; Increase in soil temperature in the upper layers; Increase in the depth of suitable soil; Savings in fertiliser and energy cost; Facilitation of the mixing of fertilisers; and Control of vehicle movement in the orchard. Ridges clearly indicate the inter-

    row paths and re-compaction of the soil is limited. The disadvantages of ridging are:

    Higher soil temperature, which can be up to 5C higher compared to a flat soil surface;

    Increased evaporation of water; Limitation in irrigation design, as only drip and micro-jets can be used; and The undulating surface which makes picking more difficult.

    MMyy NNootteess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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  • Implement Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Practices

    Primary Agriculture NQF Level 4 Unit Standard No: 116311 1133

    Version: 01 Version Date: July 2006

    1. Visit a prominent farmer in the community. Gather information from this farmer on:

    a) The fertilizer programme followed for a specific crop.

    b) Soil and if available leaf analyses results.

    c) Cultivations actions conducted throughout the life span of the specific crop for the last 5 years. Now make a summary of what was done over the last five years.

    2. Interpret this information in terms of:

    a) Changes in fertility over time.

    Model Answer(s): The learner should evaluate the farmers use of soil analysis to improve soil conditions. If the farmer is making use of the soil analysis the learner would see an increase in the amount of P and K in the soil. It should, however, not be above the norms of 20 to 30 ppm for P and 80 to 120 ppm for K. The same can be done for salinity and pH problems. Were there any problems and how did the farmer coupe with it?

    b) Changes in cultivation practices over time.

    Model Answer(s): What criteria was used to decide on specific cultivation practices. Did the farmer change the practices over time? If so, why and what is he doing at present. Do the learner think this was a good change, or what would they have done? If the farmer did not change cultivation practices, do you think what he is using at present is the best? What would your recommendations be? Is the farmer making use of conservation tillage? If not, why not? By asking these questions, the learner should be able to identify any problems and potential solutions to the problem.

    Instructions to learner:

    Field trip and brainstorm. 44..22 SSOO 44

    Learner Guide: Page 52 Facilitator Guide: Page 15

  • Implement Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Practices

    Primary Agriculture NQF Level 4 Unit Standard No: 116311 1144

    Version: 01 Version Date: July 2006

    SSuummmmaattiivvee TTeesstt aanndd AAttttiittuuddee && AAttttrriibbuuttee EEvvaalluuaattiioonn

    efore the knowledge test is undertaken, the learner must be reminded of what is expected from him / her in terms of summative and reflexive competence. Read

    and explain to the learner, the Preparation for Your Final Assessment section in the learner workbook. Learners and assessor should sign off this section to acknowledge that this step was completed.

    Please set up a knowledge test from the questions given as a guideline to learners and supply each learner with a test sheet.

    Supply each report with the following heading:

    Questions Model Answers

    1. Why is it important to Understand the basic mathematical principles required to manage soil fertility and plant nutrition?

    To ensure the correct amount of nutrient of the correct type is applied when the crop requires it, and not damage the crop due to over and under dosing.

    2. Why is it important to establish a crop under conditions of ideal soil properties?

    Soil properties determine the suitability of a soil for a specific crop, and understanding why and how they will determine suitability.

    3. Why should you be able to identify and verify deficiency symptoms in crop plants?

    Correct identification of deficiency symptoms will allow you to plan how to solve/rectify the deficiency.

    4. Is it necessary to understand of different cultivation practices for a specific situation?

    Yes as this will allow one to instruct which implements to use and how to do the cultivation action.

    BB

    Unit Standard: 116311 NQF Level: 4

    Learner Name:

  • Implement Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Practices

    Primary Agriculture NQF Level 4 Unit Standard No: 116311 1155

    Version: 01 Version Date: July 2006

    Assessment Feedback Form

    Comments / Remarks

    Feedback to learner on assessment and / or overall recommendations and action plan for competence:

    Feedback from learner to assessor:

    Assessment Judgement You have been found:

    Competent Not yet competent in this unit standard

    Actions to follow:

    Assessor report to ETQA Learner results and attendance certification issued

    Learners Signature:

    Date:

    Assessors Signature:

    Date:

    Moderators Signature:

    Date:

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