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SoilFertilityManagement(3)Croppingsystems

ZEFandIPADSJointLecture(1822Jan.2016)

1

IPADSSoilFertilityManagement(3)Croppingsystems

DepartmentofGlobalAgriculturalSciencesIPADS

KensukeOKADA(akokada@mail.ecc.utokyo.ac.jp)

ipads.jp/soil

1(LlanosOrientalesinColombia,photobyKO)

InternationalPrograminAgriculturalDevelopmentStudies(IPADS) 19 January2015

Contents

1. Historyofcroppingsystems2. Fallow3. CropRotation4. Croppasturesystem5. Inter/mixedcroppingsystems

1.HISTORYOFCROPPINGSYSTEM

Twofieldsystem

ThissystemwasemployedinEuropeandmiddleEastinancienttimes(untiltheageoftheRomanempire,etc.).Itthenstartedtobetakenoverbythetreefieldsystem.

Inthefallow,thelivestockareallowedtograzeonthestubbleandenrichthesoilwithdroppings.

Wheat/Barley/Rye

Fallow(1styear

2ndyear

Wheat/Barley/Rye

Fallow

Threefieldsystem

Wintercrop:wheat,rye() Summercrop:barley,oat(),faba(),pea() Theanimalwasgrazedinpermanentpastureandkeptinthepen() to

collectdroppings(,manure,faces) Couldnotensurethefodder() duringwinterseason.

WhentheRomanempirewasexpandedtothemiddleEurope,thetwofieldsystemforwinterrainclimatewasmodifiedtothesummerrainclimate

WinterCrop

SummerCrop

Fallow

Pasture

Convertiblehusbandry

Apartofthecommonpasturewasenclosedandconvertedtotheprivateforagefield

Higherforageproductionincreasedanimalproduction. Italsoincreasedthesoilfertility ofthecropland

Severalyearscropproductionfollowedbyseveralyearsforageproduction

WinterCrop

SummerCrop

SummerCrop

Forage

Forage

Forage

Forage

SoilFertilityManagement(3)Croppingsystems

ZEFandIPADSJointLecture(1822Jan.2016)

2

Norfolkrotation

Inthissystem,allthecommonpasture andfallow wasdiscontinued,andforageturnip andredclover(legume) wereintroduced.

Thisenabledmultigroupfeedinganddrylot feeding.

Midof18ct,mostintensiverotationsystemwasestablishedinNorfolkareainEngland.

SummerCrop

(Barley)

Redclover(annualforage)

WinterCrop(Wheat)

Rootcrop(ForageTurnip)

Historyofthedevelopmentofcroppingsystems

Thefactorswhichincreasedtheproductivityinthenewcroppingsystemsare:1.Livestockmanuredroppingsinfallow(threefield)2.Forageandmanure(convertible)3.Legumes(Norfolk)4.Rootcrops(Norfolk)

BourgeoisRevolution

AgrarianRevolution

(England)

ThreefieldsystemNorfolkrotation

2.FALLOW

FallowassoilfertilityrecoverymeasuresImprovedfallow

Fieldofpearlmillet (

Fallowland

(PhotobyK.Okada)

RainyseasoninNiger,WestAfrica

CroplandandfallowlandRainyseason

Dryseason

(Niger)

EffectoffallowontotalNintheSahelregion

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

FY

M10

FY

M5 H

MC

-C

MC

-S

CC

F10

F5

F1

RF

1

RF

2

RF

3

NT

TN

(m

g kg

-1)

BZ

c

b

a

d d

dee

dde de

ccd

d

FYM:TransferredmanureH:HousecompoundMC,CC:CorrallingF:FallowRF:ReservedfallowNT:Continuousmillet(numbersaretheyearofcontinuation)

FarmersfieldsinBanizumbou villageinNiger

SoilFertilityManagement(3)Croppingsystems

ZEFandIPADSJointLecture(1822Jan.2016)

3

FallowlandsinBurkinaFaso40yearsfallow(Higherstandingbiomassincludingtree,butthechemicalindicesofthesoilswerelow)

Grassfallowindryseason(Standingresidueis

consideredtofunctionastrapfordustmineral)

EffectoffallowbandsystemonsoilfertilityrecoverinSahel

Fallowinpreviousyear

Croppinginpreviousyear

Fallowinpreviousyear

Croppinginpreviousyear

Fallowinpreviousyear Croppinginpreviousyear

(Ikazaki)

Improvedfallow

(Kanmegne etal2003)

Ingaedulis Calliandra calothyrsus

3.CROPROTATION

1. Legumerotation2. EffectoflegumerotationotherthanN3. Legumerotationandsoilcarbon4. (Effectofmycorrhizae dealtinthe

followinglecture)

Legumemixedcroppingintheworld

MaizewithBean(CentralandSouthAmerica) RicewithSoybean(Asia) RicewithMungbean (Asia) SorghumwithPigeonpea (India) Pearlmilletwithcowpea(Africa)

LowconsumptionoflegumescomparedwithcerealsLowplantingdensityoflegumescomparedwithcereals

F+M

Effectofcroprotation(1) Long-term exp at Burkina Faso (2006) 46 days after sowing Upper-Continuous sorghum, Lower-Sorghum-Cowpea rotation

Control f(Fertilizerlow) f+CR(cropres)

A.Mori

SoilFertilityManagement(3)Croppingsystems

ZEFandIPADSJointLecture(1822Jan.2016)

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Effectofcroprotation(cont.)

f

F+M

F(Fertilizerhigh) f+m(manurelow

A.Mori

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

(kg

ha-1

) Control

5()5()CaO

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

(kg

ha-1

) f

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

(kg

ha-1

)

f + CR

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

F

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

f + m

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

F + M

Longtermtrendinsorghumyieldincontinuouscroppingandinrotationwithcowpea

(19602004)(Mori2010)

Continuousvs. Rotation

Ncredit

ItwasknownincornbeltinUS,thattherequirementofNformaizeaftersoybeanislessthanthataftermaize.

DecreaseinNdemand =Ncredit

UsuallyNcredithasbeenattributedtothenitrogenfixationbysoybean

However,theNcredittheoryhasbeenquestioned becauseestimatesofNfixationandsubsequentremovalwiththegrainsuggestthatsoybeanactuallyresultsinanetremovalofNfrommanysoils (Heichel andBarnes,1984)

Martensetal2006

Aftergrainremoval,itwasestimatedthatthegrowthofcv.Chippewainthissoilledtoanetsoildepletionof54kgN/ha.

Zapataetal1987

Thenexperimentswithnonnodulated soybeanwasconducted

EffectofprevioussoybeanonmaizecropinIllinois,US

Gentryetal2001)

SoilFertilityManagement(3)Croppingsystems

ZEFandIPADSJointLecture(1822Jan.2016)

5

EffectofprevioussoybeanonmaizecropinIllinois,US

(Bergerouetal2001)

EffectofpreviouscropandrateofappliedNongrainyieldofmaize.

Effectsofprevioussoybeanonsorghumyield(Nebraska,US)

2003:(6.75.1)/(6.72.1)=0.35N2fixcontribution=35%

2004:(7.75.9)/(7.73.3)=0.41 N2 fixcontribution=41%

ContributionofN2fixationisonly3541%

ThesedatasuggestthatbiologicalNfixationeffects ofsoybeanaccountedforapproximately35% ofthegrainyieldenhancementduetorotationin2003and41% in2004,thusmostoftherotationbenefitwasduetoeffectsotherthanbiologicallyfixedNbytheprecedingsoybeancrop,,thisisthesimilartothefindingsofGentryetal.(2001)andBergerou etal.(2004)formaizesoybeanrotation.

(Kayeetal.2007)

Otherpossiblemechanisms

Immobilization/mineralizationofsoilOrganicN(SmithandSharpley 1990,GreenandBlackmer 1995)

Decreaseindiseases(Bagayoko etal2000)

IncreaseinVAmycorrhizal infection(Bagayoko etal2000)

Improvementofsoilphysical characteristics(Gakale andClegg1987)

Changeinsoilmicrobialbiomass(Roder etal1988)

Parasiticnematodes decreasedbyrotationwithlegumes (?)

(Bagayokoetal2000)

VAMinfectionincreasedwithlegumerotation(?)

(Bagayokoetal2000)

SoilFertilityManagement(3)Croppingsystems

ZEFandIPADSJointLecture(1822Jan.2016)

6

Theimprovedgrowthofmaizefollowingsoybean,i.e.,thesoybeanNcredit,waslargelytheresultofadecreaseinnetsoilmineralizationincontinuousmaizeproduction.

Bergerou etal.2004

(Drinkwater etal.1989)

CroppingsystemswithLEGUMESincreasetheC3carboninthesoils

(Drinkwater1998)

TotalsoilcarsonLeft:1981Right:1995

NMR:ManureasNsourceLEG:LegumesasNsourceCNV:Conventional

OthersC3origin

Dark:C4origin

CarbonderivedfromlegumerootsincreasedtotalsoilCinsorghum/cowpearotation

(Mori2010)

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

Fallo

w

Cont

inuo

us

Rota

tion

Cont

inuo

us

Rota

tion

Cont

inuo

us

Rota

tion

Cont

inuo

us

Rota

tion

Cont

inuo

us

Rota

tion

Cont

inuo

us

Rota

tion

Control f f+CR F f+m F+M

Dis

tribu

tion

of C

(g k

g-1 )

C3-derived CC4-derived C

Figure - Quantitative distribution of C3- and C4-derivedsoil C. Values are mean of 3 replications and standard errors ofthe mean in parenthesis.

4.CROPPASTURESYSTEM

ExampleofricepasturesystemfromLlanosOrientales(EasternSavanna)inColombia

NativepastureinLlanosOrientales,Colombia

So