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INTERNATIONAL FERTILIZER DEVELOPMENT CENTER PO BOX 2040 | MUSCLE SHOALS, AL 35662 | USA

Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Management Strategy for Myanmar

March 2018

2

Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Management Strategy for Myanmar i

Table of Contents

Foreword .................................................................................................................................... v Executive Summary ................................................................................................................. vii 1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 1 2. Background .......................................................................................................................... 2

2.1 Natural Resource Base, Agro-Ecological Zones, and Crop Seasons .......................... 2 2.2 National Agriculture Policy ........................................................................................ 3

3. Myanmar Soils and Management Essentials to Achieve Improved Yields (Quality/Quantity) on a Sustainable Basis ........................................................................... 4 3.1 Soil Characteristics ..................................................................................................... 5 3.2 Soil Fertility, Plant Nutrition, and Human Health ...................................................... 6 3.3 Soil Nutrient Removal Through Cropping ............................................................... 10 3.4 Sources for Replacement of Crop Nutrients ............................................................. 11

3.4.1 Organic Fertilizers ....................................................................................... 12 3.4.2 Biofertilizers ................................................................................................ 13 3.4.3 Chemical Fertilizers .................................................................................... 14

4. Roles and Responsibilities for Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Management in Myanmar ..... 16 4.1 Public Sector ............................................................................................................. 17 4.2 Private Sector ............................................................................................................ 18 4.3 International Organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations ........................ 19 4.4 Coordination ............................................................................................................. 20

5. The Fertilizer Market in Myanmar .................................................................................... 20 5.1 Fertilizer Demand ..................................................................................................... 21 5.2 Structure of the Fertilizer Market in Myanmar ......................................................... 23

5.2.1 The Fertilizer Value Chain .......................................................................... 23 6. The Fertilizer Law and Regulatory System ....................................................................... 29

6.1 The Fertilizer Law..................................................................................................... 29 6.2 The Fertilizer Regulatory System ............................................................................. 30

7. Soil Degradation in Myanmar Contributing Factors and Implications for Agriculture Production Systems ............................................................................................................ 31

8. Fertilizers Impact on the Environment and Its Mitigation Role ....................................... 35 8.1 Mitigating the Impacts .............................................................................................. 36 8.2 Importance of Integrated Soil Fertility Management................................................ 38

9. Key Challenges and Opportunities .................................................................................... 40 10. Scope of Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Management Strategy ............................................. 42

10.1 Rationale for Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Management Strategy Why Is It Important? ................................................................................................................. 42

Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Management Strategy for Myanmar ii

10.2 Vision ........................................................................................................................ 43 10.3 Values ....................................................................................................................... 45 10.4 Targets....................................................................................................................... 45 10.5 Strategic Objectives .................................................................................................. 46 10.6 Key Themes and Interventions ................................................................................. 48

10.6.1 Research ...................................................................................................... 49 10.6.2 Agriculture Extension and Technology Transfer ........................................ 55 10.6.3 Reduce the Negative Impacts of Fertilizer Use on Climate Change, the

Natural Landscape, and Ecological Resources ............................................ 58 10.6.4 Strengthening the Fertilizer Law ................................................................. 61 10.6.5 Fertilizer Supply and Market Development ................................................ 63 10.6.6 Ensuring Farmers Have Access to High-Quality Fertilizers ....................... 65 10.6.7 Market Transparency ................................................................................... 67 10.6.8 Financial Services for Input Suppliers and Farmers ................................... 68 10.6.9 Capacity Building ........................................................................................ 70 10.6.10 Post-Harvest Markets .................................................................................. 73

11. Compatibility of Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Management Strategy with Key Agriculture Development Strategies ..................................................................................................... 74

12. The Way Forward .............................................................................................................. 75

Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Management Strategy for Myanmar iii

List of Tables

Table 1. National Agriculture Policy of Myanmar Vision Elements............................... 4 Table 2. Plant Nutrients, Classification, Form of Uptake, Functions, and

Concentrations in Soils and Plants ....................................................................... 9 Table 3. Micronutrient Malnutrition as a Percentage Prevalence ..................................... 10 Table 4. Area Sown, Yield, Production, and Nutrient Removal by Harvested

Component and All Parts for Key Crops in Myanmar for 2015/2016................ 11 Table 5. Types of Organic Fertilizers ............................................................................... 13 Table 6. Chemical Fertilizers in Myanmar ....................................................................... 15 Table 7. Role of Public and Private Sectors in Myanmar Fertilizer Market ..................... 16 Table 8. Estimated Fertilizer Use in Myanmar, 2013/14 and 2016/17 ............................. 22 Table 9. Fertilizer Imports ('000 t) .................................................................................... 26 Table 10. Ammonia/Urea Fertilizer Factories in Myanmar................................................ 27 Table 11. Urea Fertilizer Production in Myanmar ('000 t) ................................................. 27 Table 12. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) Analysis .................... 41 Table 13. Linkages between Strategy Objectives and Thematic Focal Areas of the

Myanmar Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Management Strategy ............................. 49 Table 14. SFFMS Actions and Targets ............................................................................... 76

List of Figures

Figure 1. Fertilizer Value Chain in Myanmar .................................................................... 24 Figure 2. Calculated Nutrient Balance for Myanmar ......................................................... 34 Figure 3. Relationship Between Fertilizer Consumption, Cultivated Land, and Land

Spared ................................................................................................................. 37 Figure 4. Schematics of Stakeholder Coordination Platforms ........................................... 73

Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Management Strategy for Myanmar iv

Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Management Strategy for Myanmar v

Foreword

Agriculture sector performance is key to economic growth and food security in Myanmar.

Recently, the Republic of the Government of Myanmar (GOM) has engaged in the

preparation of numerous strategic action plans and strategy-related documents that target

improved agriculture sector performance.1 Each document identifies soil degradation

(problems related to soil erosion, soil fertility, and soil salinity) as a significant concern that

must be properly addressed to support sustainable agricultu

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