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Submitted to: - Pankaj JainSubmitted By:- Mukesh Verma Program :- BBA-MBA (Int.) Section :- A Reg. no. :- 3020070181
Firstly I would like to thank the God that He has made this World and He gave birth us as a human beings and God has given us a glorious gift i.e. our beautiful world and He made each and everything which we are required to survive in this world. He gave us beautiful plants, animals, air for breath, water for living and many more things which are very essential for the living and one which the most important things without it we cant do anything on this word i.e. Earth on which live, walk and do all the activities to survive in this world like farming. Farming cant possible without earth but in real sense our all agriculture is base on thin layer of earth that is known as SOIL which most valuable & essential for the farming because it has a large no of nutrients . But in 21st century this valuable soil is decreasing day-today. India is agriculture based country and most of the population of India is engage in agriculture and the agriculture area has a great contribution in National Income or to development of country. In India there is a large numbers of farmers who are engage in farming and they know that the fertile Soil is very important for their good crops. But due to the Soil Erosion their fertile soil is decreasing day-today. This report will help you to know about the soil, its forming factors, causes of removing soil and how to control this valuable soil & to sustain the lives.
Our Beautiful Word..4
Glorious Gift of Nature..4 Where we live....5 What is Soil?......................................................................6 Story of Soil...7 Formation...8
The Five Forming Factors............................................91. Parent Material 2. Climate 3. Organisims 4. Time
What is Soil Erosion?......................................................11 Did you know ..12 Effects of Soil Erosion....14
Types of Soil Erosion..15
Water Erosion...15 Wind Erosion....17 Gravitical Erosion.18 Frozen-Melt Erosion.19
Causes of Soil Erosion.21
Climate Factor..22 Soil Feature Factor...23 Geological Factor23 Biological Factor..253
Now Our Glorious Gift27 How to Control Soil Erosion...301. Cover Method30 Mulching Cover crops and green manures Green manures Mixed cropping and inter-cropping Early planting Crop residues Agroforestry Minimum cultivation
2. Barrier methods.32
Man-made terraces Contour ploughing Contour barriers Natural tracces
Methods for sloping land.34 Solution for Soil Erosion.........................35 Conclusion36 Bibliography.37
OUR BEAUTYFUL WORLD4
GLORIOUS GIFT OF NATURE
WHERE WE LIVE
Soil on which we live and do all those things for survive in this world. Where we do all those activities like:Agriculture, Economic Activities to fulfill our wants.
What is Soil?SOIL may be defined as a thin layer of earth's crust which serves as a natural medium for growth of plants. It is the unconsolidated mineral matter that has been subjected to, and influenced by, genetic and environmental factors-- parent material, climate, organisms and topography all acting over a period of time. Soil differs from the parent material in the morphological, physical , chemical and biological properties. Also, soils differ among themselves in some or all the properties, depending on the differences in the genetic and environmental factors. Thus some soils are red, some are black; some are deep and some are shallow; some are coarse textured and some are fine-textured. They serve as a reservoir of nutrients and water for crops, provide mechanical anchorage and favourable tilth. The components of soil are mineral matter, organic matter, water and air, the proportions of which vary and which together form a system for plant growth; hence the need to study the soils in perspective. Soil erosion is a natural process. It becomes a problem when human activity causes it to occur much faster than under natural conditions. Soil covers a major portion of the earth's land surface. It is an important natural resource that either directly or indirectly supports most of the planet's life. Life here depends upon soil for food. Plants are rooted in soil and obtain needed nutrients there. Animals get their nutrients from plants or from other animals that eat plants. Many animals make their homes or are sheltered in the soil. Microbes in the soil cause the breakdown and decay of dead organisms, a process that in turn adds more nutrients to the soil. Soil is a mixture of mineral and organic materials plus air and water. The contents of soil varies in different locations and is constantly changing. There are many different kinds and types of soils. Each has certain characteristics including a specific color and composition. Different kinds of soils support the growth of different types of plants and also determine how well7
that plant life grows. Soil is formed slowly, but can be easily destroyed. Therefore, soil conservation is important for continued support of life.*
Story of SoilAlthough many of us don't think about the ground beneath us or the soil that we walk on each day, the truth is soil is a very important resource. Processes take place over thousands of years to create a small amount of soil material. Unfortunately the most valuable soil is often used for building purposes or is unprotected and erodes away. To protect this vital natural resource and to sustain the world's growing housing and food requirements it is important to learn about soil, how soil forms, and natural reactions that occur in soil to sustain healthy plant growth and purify water. Soil is important to the livelihood of plants, animals, and humans. However, soil quality and quantity can be and is adversely affected by human activity and misuse of soil. Certain soils are best used for growing crops that humans and animals consume, and for building airports, cities, and roads. Other types of soil have limitations that prevent them from being built upon and must be left alone. Often these soils provide habitats for living creatures both in the soil and atop the soil. One example of soils that have use limitations are those that hold lakes, rivers, streams, and wetlands. Humans don't normally establish their homes in these places, but fish and waterfowl find homes here, as do the wildlife that live around these bodies of water. Natural processes that occur on the surface of Earth as well as alterations made to earth material over long periods of time form thousands of different soil types. In the United States alone there are over 50,000 different soils! Specific factors are8
involved in forming soil and these factors vary worldwide, creating varied soil combinations and soil properties worldwide.
FormationSoil formation, or pedogenesis, is the combined effect of physical, chemical, biological, and anthropogenic processes on soil parent material resulting in the formation of soil horizons. Soil is always changing. The long periods over which change occurs and the multiple influences of change mean that simple soils are rare. While soil can achieve relative stability in properties for extended periods of time, the soil life cycle ultimately ends in soil conditions that leave it vulnerable to erosion. Little of the soil continuum of the earth is older than Tertiary and most no older than Pleistocene. Despite the inevitability of soils retrogression and degradation, most soil cycles are long and productive. How the soil "life" cycle proceeds is influenced by at least five classic soil forming factors: regional climate, biotic potential, topography, parent material, and the passage of time. An example of soil development from bare rock occurs on recent lava flows in warm regions under heavy and very frequent rainfall. In such climates plants become established very quickly on basaltic lava, even though there is very little organic material. The plants are supported by the porous rock becoming filled with nutrient bearing water, for example carrying dissolved bird droppings or guano. The developing plant roots themselves gradually breaks up the porous lava and organic matter soon accumulates but, even before it does, the predominantly porous broken lava in which the plant roots grow can be considered a soil.
The Four Soil Forming Factors1. Parent material: The primary material from which the soil is formed. Soil parent material could be bedrock, organic material,9
an old soil surface, or a deposit from water, wind, glaciers, volcanoes, or material moving down a slope.
2. climate: Weathering forces such as heat, rain, ice, snow,wind, sunshine, and other environmental forces, break down parent material and affect how fast or slow soil formation processes go. 3. Organisms: All plants and animals living in or on the soil (including micro-organisms and humans!). The amount of water and nutrients, plants need affects the way soil forms. The way humans use soils affects soil formation. Also, animals living in the soil affect decomposition of waste materials and how soil materials will be moved around in the soil profile. On the soil surface remains of dead plants and animals are worked by microorganisms and eventually become organic matter that is incorporated into the soil and enriches the soil. 4. Time: All of the above factors assert themselves over time, often hundreds or thousands of years. Soil profiles continually change from weakly developed to well developed over time.
_____________________________________________________________ *http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil#Characteristics *http:/