soil carbon sequestration potential of jatropha curcas l. growing in varying soil conditions
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Ecological Engineering 68 (2014) 155166
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oil carbon sequestration potential of Jatropha curcas L. growing inarying soil conditions
ankaj Srivastavaa,1, Yogesh K. Sharmab, Nandita Singha,
Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001, Uttarradesh, IndiaDepartment of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India
r t i c l e i n f o
rticle history:eceived 17 October 2013eceived in revised form 16 January 2014ccepted 25 March 2014
eywords:oil qualityatropha plantationsotal organic carbonicrobial biomass carbon
a b s t r a c t
The present study was aimed to evaluate the soil carbon sequestration and reclamation potential of Jat-ropha curcas L. (JCL) growing in varying soil conditions. For this, a study was conducted during 20082012at four different sites of Jatropha plantations (Banthara, Gajaria, Bakshi ka talab and NBRI) growing in cen-tral India. Periodic sampling was done for plant biomass, litter turn over, microbial biomass, soil enzymesand carbon and nutrients stock of JCL plantations. The analytical studies clearly indicate that irrespectiveof the soil sites, the Jatropha plantations significantly enhanced ( = 5%; p 0.05) the total organic car-bon, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, available phosphorus and potassium content n the soil. During the fourthyear of plantations, the total plant biomass (including the above and below ground biomass) of JCL grow-ing in various plantation sites has been increased from 15.20 4.60 to 203.00 40.60 t ha1 year1 witha subsequent total biomass carbon content of 7.60 2.30 to 101.50 13.52 t ha1 year1, respectively.
1 1oil carbon sequestration Similarly, the soil carbon stock of the plantation sites varied from 20.59 to 50.45 Mg ha year . Fur-thermore, the microbial biomass carbon content of the four different sites varied from 132.64 9.28to 641.32 38.48 g g1 soils. Therefore, the study clearly indicates that JCL plantations can significantly(p 0.01) enhance the soil quality including the soil carbon pool and microbial biomass carbon and can beused for the concurrent initiatives on biofuel production, soil carbon sequestration and soil reclamation.
2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
. Introduction and background
Recent concerns about rising carbon dioxide (CO2) concentra-ions in the atmosphere and its effects on Earths climate havenitiated the necessity to capture and sequester a large amount oftmospheric carbon pool in terrestrial sinks in a sustainable way.s soil is an important terrestrial sink of carbon and vegetation
s the major source of carbon to the soils, this can be achievedhrough forestation and suitable land use conversions (De Gryzet al., 2004; Pandey et al., 2010). Therefore, the conversion ofasteland, degraded and marginal lands to vegetative land will
nhance the soil carbon pool through organic matter input fromrowing plants (Pandey et al., 2010). Among the various groupf plant species recommend for waste land reclamation, biofuel
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rops are often considered as a desirable option for wastelandsemediation. Apart from the benefit of bioenergy production androviding employment opportunities and livelihoods in rural areasAchten et al., 2010a; Phalan, 2009; Sreedevi et al., 2009a,b; Wanind Sreedevi, 2005; Wani et al., 2006, 2009a) the growing plants inarginal and degraded lands will also help in soil carbon fixation
hrough litter and biomass turnover, root exudation and increasedicrobial activity (Wani et al., 2006, 2009b; Betts, 2007; Heruela,
008; Sreedevi et al., 2009a,b; Doua et al., 2013; Evans et al., 2013;ereidooni et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2013).
Therefore, the sustainable and productive use of wastelands byrowing multipurpose species like Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) couldelp to strengthen the local livelihoods and income diversifica-ion (Mandal and Mitrha, 2004). It is estimated that India is havingbout 4064 million ha of waste lands, which could be partially orully cultivated with JCL for biofuel production (Francis et al., 2005;educ et al., 2009). Additionally, when marginal land is planted with. curcas, the soil quality of the degraded soil will gradually restorednd will create a positive effect on the surrounding ecosystemsFrancis et al., 2005). Most importantly, JCL is a drought-resistant,dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.03.031http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09258574http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ecolenghttp://crossmark.crossref.org/dialog/?doi=10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.03.031&domain=pdfmailto:firstname.lastname@example.org:email@example.com:firstname.lastname@example.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.03.031
156 P. Srivastava et al. / Ecological Engineering 68 (2014) 155166
Table 1Soil textural properties under different plantation site.
Plantation Site Location Clay (%) Silt (%) Sand (%) Porosity (g/cc)
Site-1 BNT 48.33 1.15 31.00 1.00 20.67 1.15 5.23 0.002
Site-2 GJR 15.00 1.15 Site-3 BKT 51.33 1.15 Site-4 NBRI 22.33 1.15
ultipurpose species well adapted to arid and semi-arid condi-ions, and can be easily cultivated and managed in degraded and
arginal lands with minimal inputs. Therefore, JCL is now widelylanted worldwide in the semi-arid and tropics (Fairless, 2007).ike other Jatropha species, JCL is also a succulent that sheds itseaves during the dry season (Heller, 1996).
Because of its biofuel production potential and adaptabilityo grow in harsh conditions, the growing economies like Indiand China have already incorporated the Jatropha biofuel mis-ion within their energy policies. On the other hand, there is arowing apprehension that the careless cultivation of Jatrophaould lead to significant ecological and economic risks (Fairless,007). Furthermore, there is a worldwide debate over the foodnd biofuel production. Nevertheless, as suggested by Achten et al.2010b) and Dyer et al. (2012), a wise and proper use of JCL atocal level, supported by detailed life cycle and risk assessment
ight be a good solution for ascertaining the multipurpose ben-fits and actual potential of this shrubby plant especially for theasteland management and societal improvement in developing
conomies like India. However, there is a dearth of long term stud-es pertaining to the real carbon sequestration and soil reclamationotential of JCL plantations growing in different types of Indianoil. Therefore, the present work was aimed to ascertain the car-on sequestration potential and soil quality improvement abilitiesf JCL growing at four different sites of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh,ndia.
. Materials and methods
.1. Study site and experimental setup
Jatropha plantations were established at four different sitesor the proposed study. The sites were selected on the basis ofhe textural and chemical properties (Table 1) of the soil. Therst site was Banthra Research Station (BNT) of National Botani-al Research Institute, which is a sodic soil site located at 26 45 Natitude and 80 53 E longitudes. The pH, EC and sodium concen-rations of the BNT soil were 11.64 0.36, 358.67 67 (S cm1)nd 731.33 29.25 (g g1), respectively. The Gajaria Farm (GJR)as selected as the second plantation site and is located at 26
7 N latitude and 81 01 E longitudes. The pH of the soil wasore or less neutral to slightly alkaline (7.94 0.48) where as the
C and sodium concentrations were 71.09 3.55 (S cm1) and62.29 13.11 (g g1), respectively. The third plantation site wasakshi ka Talab (BKT) and is located 26 47 N latitude and 80 53 E
ongitudes. The soil pH, EC and sodium concentrations of BKT were.85 0.35, 92.19 4.61 (S cm1) and 205.28 12.32 (g g1),espectively. The Garden Block of NBRI (26 51.5 N Latitude and0 57 E longitudes) was selected as the fourth experimental sites.
The soil parameters such as pH, EC and sodium concen-rations were found as 8.21 0.41, 75.63 4.54 (S cm1) and59.60 9.58 (g g1), respectively. The field estimation was car-ied out at four different sites from 2008 to 2012. The mean annualrecipitation in the overall region was varied from 700 to 1100 mmnd the average minimum and maximum temperature varied from7 C to 44 C and relative humidity varied from 30 to 80%.
10.33 0.58 74.67 1.15 10.95 5.1718.00 1.00 30.67 1.15 6.14 0.08014.67 0.58 63.0 1.00 7.80 1.19
.2. Plant and soil analysis
Each experimental site were divided in to 10 micro-plots of m 5 m and the plantations of 60 day old Jatropha plants wereone at a spacing interval of 1 1 m so that each micro-plot wasaving a density of 25 plants plot1. Each year, 25 samplings wereaken from five different micro-plots in a random basis for assessinghe growth, biomass alloca