Soil carbon sequestration potential of Jatropha curcas L. growing in varying soil conditions

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<ul><li><p>Sv</p><p>Pa</p><p>Pb</p><p>a</p><p>ARRA</p><p>KSJTMSS</p><p>1</p><p>tiaAitewego</p><p>(</p><p>h0</p><p>Ecological Engineering 68 (2014) 155166</p><p>Contents lists available at ScienceDirect</p><p>Ecological Engineering</p><p>jou rn al hom ep age: www.elsev ier .com/ locate /eco leng</p><p>oil carbon sequestration potential of Jatropha curcas L. growing inarying soil conditions</p><p>ankaj Srivastavaa,1, Yogesh K. Sharmab, Nandita Singha,</p><p>Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific &amp; Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001, Uttarradesh, IndiaDepartment of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India</p><p> r t i c l e i n f o</p><p>rticle history:eceived 17 October 2013eceived in revised form 16 January 2014ccepted 25 March 2014</p><p>eywords:oil qualityatropha plantationsotal organic carbonicrobial biomass carbon</p><p>oil reclamation</p><p>a b s t r a c t</p><p>The present study was aimed to evaluate the soil carbon sequestration and reclamation potential of Jat-ropha curcas L. (JCL) growing in varying soil conditions. For this, a study was conducted during 20082012at four different sites of Jatropha plantations (Banthara, Gajaria, Bakshi ka talab and NBRI) growing in cen-tral India. Periodic sampling was done for plant biomass, litter turn over, microbial biomass, soil enzymesand carbon and nutrients stock of JCL plantations. The analytical studies clearly indicate that irrespectiveof the soil sites, the Jatropha plantations significantly enhanced ( = 5%; p 0.05) the total organic car-bon, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, available phosphorus and potassium content n the soil. During the fourthyear of plantations, the total plant biomass (including the above and below ground biomass) of JCL grow-ing in various plantation sites has been increased from 15.20 4.60 to 203.00 40.60 t ha1 year1 witha subsequent total biomass carbon content of 7.60 2.30 to 101.50 13.52 t ha1 year1, respectively.</p><p>1 1</p>oil carbon sequestration Similarly, the soil carbon stock of the plantation sites varied from 20.59 to 50.45 Mg ha year . Fur-thermore, the microbial biomass carbon content of the four different sites varied from 132.64 9.28to 641.32 38.48 g g1 soils. Therefore, the study clearly indicates that JCL plantations can significantly(p 0.01) enhance the soil quality including the soil carbon pool and microbial biomass carbon and can beused for the concurrent initiatives on biofuel production, soil carbon sequestration and soil reclamation.<p> 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p><p>crp(amtm2F</p><p>. Introduction and background</p><p>Recent concerns about rising carbon dioxide (CO2) concentra-ions in the atmosphere and its effects on Earths climate havenitiated the necessity to capture and sequester a large amount oftmospheric carbon pool in terrestrial sinks in a sustainable way.s soil is an important terrestrial sink of carbon and vegetation</p><p>s the major source of carbon to the soils, this can be achievedhrough forestation and suitable land use conversions (De Gryzet al., 2004; Pandey et al., 2010). Therefore, the conversion ofasteland, degraded and marginal lands to vegetative land will</p><p>nhance the soil carbon pool through organic matter input fromrowing plants (Pandey et al., 2010). Among the various groupf plant species recommend for waste land reclamation, biofuel</p><p> Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 5222297931; fax: +91 522 2205847.E-mail addresses:, srivastava</p><p>P. Srivastava), (N. Singh).1 Tel.: +91 522 2205847; fax: +91 522 2205847.</p><p>ghtafLJa(</p><p>ttp:// 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p><p>rops are often considered as a desirable option for wastelandsemediation. Apart from the benefit of bioenergy production androviding employment opportunities and livelihoods in rural areasAchten et al., 2010a; Phalan, 2009; Sreedevi et al., 2009a,b; Wanind Sreedevi, 2005; Wani et al., 2006, 2009a) the growing plants inarginal and degraded lands will also help in soil carbon fixation</p><p>hrough litter and biomass turnover, root exudation and increasedicrobial activity (Wani et al., 2006, 2009b; Betts, 2007; Heruela,</p><p>008; Sreedevi et al., 2009a,b; Doua et al., 2013; Evans et al., 2013;ereidooni et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2013).</p><p>Therefore, the sustainable and productive use of wastelands byrowing multipurpose species like Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) couldelp to strengthen the local livelihoods and income diversifica-ion (Mandal and Mitrha, 2004). It is estimated that India is havingbout 4064 million ha of waste lands, which could be partially orully cultivated with JCL for biofuel production (Francis et al., 2005;</p>educ et al., 2009). Additionally, when marginal land is planted with. curcas, the soil quality of the degraded soil will gradually restorednd will create a positive effect on the surrounding ecosystemsFrancis et al., 2005). Most importantly, JCL is a drought-resistant,;</li><li><p>156 P. Srivastava et al. / Ecological Engineering 68 (2014) 155166</p><p>Table 1Soil textural properties under different plantation site.</p><p>Plantation Site Location Clay (%) Silt (%) Sand (%) Porosity (g/cc)</p><p>Site-1 BNT 48.33 1.15 31.00 1.00 20.67 1.15 5.23 0.002</p><p>mtmpLl</p><p>tasgc2a(lmeweipsboI</p><p>2</p><p>2</p><p>ftficltaw4mE2Bl8r8</p><p>t1rpa1</p><p>2</p><p>5dhttgwiailwtptatmp</p><p>amTbvPawfidccbcmbm</p><p>2</p><p>zmecgatac</p><p>Site-2 GJR 15.00 1.15 Site-3 BKT 51.33 1.15 Site-4 NBRI 22.33 1.15 </p><p>ultipurpose species well adapted to arid and semi-arid condi-ions, and can be easily cultivated and managed in degraded and</p><p>arginal lands with minimal inputs. Therefore, JCL is now widelylanted worldwide in the semi-arid and tropics (Fairless, 2007).ike other Jatropha species, JCL is also a succulent that sheds itseaves during the dry season (Heller, 1996).</p><p>Because of its biofuel production potential and adaptabilityo grow in harsh conditions, the growing economies like Indiand China have already incorporated the Jatropha biofuel mis-ion within their energy policies. On the other hand, there is arowing apprehension that the careless cultivation of Jatrophaould lead to significant ecological and economic risks (Fairless,007). Furthermore, there is a worldwide debate over the foodnd biofuel production. Nevertheless, as suggested by Achten et al.2010b) and Dyer et al. (2012), a wise and proper use of JCL atocal level, supported by detailed life cycle and risk assessment</p><p>ight be a good solution for ascertaining the multipurpose ben-fits and actual potential of this shrubby plant especially for theasteland management and societal improvement in developing</p><p>conomies like India. However, there is a dearth of long term stud-es pertaining to the real carbon sequestration and soil reclamationotential of JCL plantations growing in different types of Indianoil. Therefore, the present work was aimed to ascertain the car-on sequestration potential and soil quality improvement abilitiesf JCL growing at four different sites of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh,ndia.</p><p>. Materials and methods</p><p>.1. Study site and experimental setup</p><p>Jatropha plantations were established at four different sitesor the proposed study. The sites were selected on the basis ofhe textural and chemical properties (Table 1) of the soil. Therst site was Banthra Research Station (BNT) of National Botani-al Research Institute, which is a sodic soil site located at 26 45 Natitude and 80 53 E longitudes. The pH, EC and sodium concen-rations of the BNT soil were 11.64 0.36, 358.67 67 (S cm1)nd 731.33 29.25 (g g1), respectively. The Gajaria Farm (GJR)as selected as the second plantation site and is located at 26</p><p>7 N latitude and 81 01 E longitudes. The pH of the soil wasore or less neutral to slightly alkaline (7.94 0.48) where as the</p><p>C and sodium concentrations were 71.09 3.55 (S cm1) and62.29 13.11 (g g1), respectively. The third plantation site wasakshi ka Talab (BKT) and is located 26 47 N latitude and 80 53 E</p><p>ongitudes. The soil pH, EC and sodium concentrations of BKT were.85 0.35, 92.19 4.61 (S cm1) and 205.28 12.32 (g g1),espectively. The Garden Block of NBRI (26 51.5 N Latitude and0 57 E longitudes) was selected as the fourth experimental sites.</p><p>The soil parameters such as pH, EC and sodium concen-rations were found as 8.21 0.41, 75.63 4.54 (S cm1) and59.60 9.58 (g g1), respectively. The field estimation was car-</p>ied out at four different sites from 2008 to 2012. The mean annualrecipitation in the overall region was varied from 700 to 1100 mmnd the average minimum and maximum temperature varied from7 C to 44 C and relative humidity varied from 30 to 80%.<p>cceh</p><p>10.33 0.58 74.67 1.15 10.95 5.1718.00 1.00 30.67 1.15 6.14 0.08014.67 0.58 63.0 1.00 7.80 1.19</p><p>.2. Plant and soil analysis</p><p>Each experimental site were divided in to 10 micro-plots of m 5 m and the plantations of 60 day old Jatropha plants wereone at a spacing interval of 1 1 m so that each micro-plot wasaving a density of 25 plants plot1. Each year, 25 samplings wereaken from five different micro-plots in a random basis for assessinghe growth, biomass allocation etc. The aboveground and below-round biomass was estimated by destructive method and fresheight and dry weight were recorded accordingly. Total biomass</p><p>n live Jatropha plants was obtained by adding the abovegroundnd belowground biomass. The leaf litter biomass was determinedn different plantation sites by periodically collecting the falleneaves from 50 representative plants from selected micro-plots</p><p>ith the help of nylon net closures and the average of which wasaken as leaf biomass added to soil through each plant. Similarly,runed branch biomass were calculated by pruning 50 represen-ative plant samples selected randomly from different micro-plotsnd the average was taken as pruned biomass per plant. Finally,he leaf or pruned biomass added per hectare was calculated by</p><p>ultiplying the average biomass added per plant by total plantopulation.</p><p>The percentage C content (%) in harvested plant parts suchs leaves and pruned branches were determined by combustionethod using CN analyzer (Thermo electron-EA/1112 series, USA).</p><p>he C input per hectare through litter turn over and prunedranches were calculated out by multiplying the C content of indi-idual plant by total plant biomass of a particular area. The N,, and K content of the harvested plant parts were estimated inccordance of the standard procedural protocols. The plant partsere oven dried at 70 C and firmly grounded in a Willey mill andnally passed through 2 mm sieve prior to chemical analysis. Thery materials were analyzed for total nitrogen after digested in con-entrated H2SO4 using a catalyst mixture (potassium sulphate andupric sulphate in a ratio of 9:1). The total nitrogen was estimatedy the micro-Kjeldhal method. Phosphorous and potassium con-entrations were estimated after digesting the samples in a di-acidixture (HNO3 and HClO4 in 5:1). Phosphorous was determined</p><p>y stannous chloride method and potassium by Flame Photometricethod.</p><p>.3. Soil sampling and pretreatment</p><p>At the year end, soil samples (n = 25) from two different depthones (015 and 1530 cm) were collected randomly from eachicro-plot using a soil core of 4 cm diameter. Five samples from</p><p>ach depth in each micro-plots were mixed together to make aomposite samples of five. The collected soil samples were air dried,round and passed through a 2 mm sieve for further analysis of soilnd another set of sub-samples were stored at 4 C for few dayso stabilize microbial activities prior to biological and biochemicalnalyses. The physico-chemical properties of such as pH, electricalonductivity (EC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), total organic</p>arbon, nitrogen, phosphate, sodium, potassium and calcium con-entrations were estimated according to the procedure publishedarlier (Behera et al., 2010). The soil texture was analyzed byydrometric method (Sheldrick and Wang, 1993) and bulk density</li><li><p>l Engi</p><p>(t</p><p>2</p><p>(wfc5aewto</p><p>2</p><p>mi0wStampp</p><p>2</p><p>lgS</p><p>3</p><p>3s</p><p>vroitofTt1wr</p><p>6pswstBHh</p><p>bcttwTtA(</p><p>(se(i2pdClGdetasiocmRsttw</p><p>riiuSs(e(ti(aoTMi</p><p>smK(woe</p><p>P. Srivastava et al. / Ecologica</p><p>BD) and particle density (PD) were determined by the picnome-eric method (Blake and Hartge, 1986).</p><p>.4. Glomalin extraction</p><p>Glomalin extractions were performed in accordance of WrightWright and Upadhyaya, 1998). One-gram samples of air-dried soilere placed in 8 mL 20 mM citrate, pH 7.0 and autoclaved (121 C)</p><p>or 30 min to remove the easily extractable glomalin (EEG). Afterentrifugation (10,000 g) and removal of the supernatant, 8 mL0 mM citrate (pH 8.0) was added to the remaining soil and heatedt 121 C for 60 min to extract the total glomalin (TG). Additionalxtractions with 50 mM citrate were done until the supernatantas become a straw color. One mL of EEG was removed and then</p><p>he remaining supernatant containing EEG was combined with allf the supernatants from the 50 mM citrate extractions.</p><p>.5. Enzyme activities in soil</p><p>Urease activity of the soil using urea as the substrate waseasured (Kandeler and Gerber, 1988). Five grams of soil were</p><p>ncubated with 5 ml of 0.05 M THAM buffer (pH 9.0) and1 ml of.2% of urea solution at 37 C for 2 h. Acid phosphatase activityas assayed by the method of (Tabatabai and Bremner, 1969).</p><p>oil dehydrogenase activity was estimated by reducing 2,3,5-riphenyltetrazolium chloride (Casida et al., 1964). Alkaline (pH 11)nd acid (pH 6.5) phosphatase activities were determined by theethods of (Tabatabai, 1994), by measuring the concentration of</p><p>-nitrophenol (PN) released after incubation of soil samples with-nitrophenol phosphate in a universal buffer.</p><p>.6. Statistical analysis</p><p>The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) fol-owed by Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The values wereiven as means SD. Statistical analysis was performed by usingPSS 17.0 software for windows program.</p><p>. Results and discussion</p><p>.1. Plantation induced changes in physicochemical properties ofoil</p><p>It is widely reported that JCL can improve the soil quality, pre-ent soil erosion and promoting marginal land reclamation and soilemediation (Openshaw, 2000). Furthermore, the positive effectsn soil quality improvements are evidenced from the soil structuralmprovement (Tables 1, 2a and 2b), improvement in nutrient con-ents as well soil microbial activity. In the present study, the effectf Jatropha plantations on soil quality changes were evaluated atour different sites Banthra (BNT); Gajaria Farm (GJR); Bakshi kaalab (BKT) and NBRI) having varying soil properties (Fig. 1). Amonghe fou...</p></li></ul>


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