SOIL AND WATER SCIENCES THE SEAGRAM CENTER FOR SOIL agrochemicals in the soil); soil organic material; soil and clay physical chemistry; soil fertility; soil physics; soil, water and air pollution; ...

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39SOIL AND WATER SCIENCES THE SEAGRAM CENTER FOR SOIL AND WATER SCIENCES E-mail:; URL: Tel: 972-8-948-9340; Fax: 972-8-947-5181 STAFF Professor Emeritus: Lahav, N., Ph.D. Singer, A., Ph.D. Professors: Banin, A., Ph.D.1 Chen, Y., Ph.D.2 Mahrer, Y., Ph.D. (Head of Dept.) Mualem, Y., D.Sc. Nir, S., Ph.D. Associate Professors: Nativ, R., Ph.D. Wallach, R., D.Sc. Senior Lecturer: Shani, U., Ph.D.3 Lecturers: Chefetz, B., Ph.D. Shenker, M., Ph.D. Senior Teachers: Kalbermann, T., Ph.D. Wakshal, E., Ph.D. Teacher: Pfeffer, J., M.Sc. Kamea Program: Polubesova, T., Ph.D. INTRODUCTION Research activity in the Seagram Center for Soil and Water Sciences concentrates on the agricultural aspects of the basic properties of the soil-water-atmosphere complex, with special focus on the unique Israeli experience and on environmental quality. Both basic and applied research are 1 Columbia Foundation Professor of Soil and Water Sciences 2 Vigevani Professor of Agriculture 3 Joseph H. and Belle R. Braun Senior Lectureship in Agriculture 40conducted at the Center's laboratories. Chief areas of research include: Pedology and soil genesis (soil formation processes in Israel and soil classification and land use); soil mineralogy (formation and characteristics of various minerals in soils); soil chemistry (the ionic environment of the soil; reactions of organic and inorganic agrochemicals in the soil); soil organic material; soil and clay physical chemistry; soil fertility; soil physics; soil, water and air pollution; stabilization of pesticides; hydrogeology; urban hydrology; water resources; hydrochemistry; irrigation; biotechnology and wastewater recycling; biomolecules in specific reactions (basic features of molecular biology and colloid chemistry in relation to the origins of life); agrometeorology. BANIN, AMOS Born 1935, Jerusalem; Ph.D. 1965, Hebrew Univ.; Lect. 1967; Sen. Lect. 1970; Assoc. Prof. 1974; Prof. 1978. Columbia Foundation Professor of Soil and Water Sciences since 1981. E-mail: Tel: 972-8-948-9288; Fax: 972-8-947-5181 Research Interests: Physical-chemistry and technology of soils and clays; plant-soil relationships; the role of soils in the global planetary processes on Earth and the other planets. Wastewater reclamation and reuse: Redox processes, effects on soil geochemistry. Soil pollution by heavy metals; dynamics of trace-elements in soils. Long-term soil deterioration processes, involving salinity and sodicity in arid-zones. Surface acidity of clays and soils. The soils of Mars. Research Projects: 1. The geochemistry and performance of soils in effluent recharge systems; The Soil-Aquifer System at the Shafdan Wastewater Treatment Plant and its mechanisms. 2. Redox processes in soils irrigated with reclaimed wastewater. 3. Soil pollution with heavy metals. 4. Sustainable use of soils: Indicators and approaches. 5. Secondary salinization of soil and water resources in intensively-irrigated regions: modeling the processes and developing management protocols for sustained long-term use. 6. Mars soils: Formation, properties and role in the evolution of the planet. 41CHEFETZ, BENNY Born 1965, Rishon-LeZion; Ph.D. 1998, Hebrew Univ.; Lect. 2000 . E-mail: Tel: 972-8-9489384; Fax: 972-8-947-5181 Research Interests: Physico-chemical processes of nonionic organic pollutants such as agrochemicals (pesticides and herbicides) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurring in natural and contaminated soils. Of particular interest are 1) the interactions (sorption processes) between pollutants and soil organic matter or plant biopolymers; 2) the fate of nonionic organic pollutants in the environment; and 3) bioremediation processes. CHEN, YONA Born 1941, Haifa; Ph.D. 1975, Hebrew Univ.; Lect. 1977`; Sen. Lect. 1979; Assoc. Prof. 1983; Prof. 1987; Dean, 1993-1997; Recipient, The Feher Foundation Prize, The Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies and the Jerusalem Foundation, 1997; Recipient, Rothschild Prize for Agriculture, 1998; Recipient, The Von Humboldt Prize, Germany, 2002. Tel: 972-8-948-9234/9298; Fax: 972-8-946-8565 Research Interests: The physical chemistry of humic substances, minerals and their interactions. Effects of organic matter on soil fertility and structure. The role of organic matter and bacteria in the iron nutrition of plants. Composting of agricultural wastes and the application of composts as soil conditioners and as peat substitutes in horticulture. Chemical transformations in composts. Effects of dissolved organic matter in wastewaters on soil structure and its hydraulic conductivity. Research Projects: 1. Composting of municipal and agricultural solid wastes and their utilization in agriculture. 2. Microbial siderophores as carriers of iron to higher plants: production mode of action and effectiveness. 3. Physico-chemical properties and possible agricultural use of bottom coal ash. 4. Irrigation and fertigation management of soil-less culture. 5. Effects of irrigation with treated wastewaters on soil hydrophobicity and hydraulic conductivity. 6. Potential hazards to crop production from boron in wastewaters: mechanisms and effects. 42KALBERMAN, GERMAN (TZVI) Born 1951, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Ph.D. 1981, Tel-Aviv Univ.; Senior Teacher, 1987. E-mail: Tel: 972-8-9489139; Fax: 972-8-947-5181 Research Interests: Theoretical physics. LAHAV, NOAM Born 1929, Ein Harod (Israel); Ph.D. 1962, Hebrew Univ.; Assoc. Prof. (HU) 1974; Prof. 1978; Emeritus 1997. E-mail: Tel: 972-8-948-9349; Fax: 972-8-947-5181 Research Interests: Synthesis of pillared clays made by different clay minerals and various oxy-hydroxides. Origin of life. Modification of clay minerals. Research Projects: 1. Synthesis of pillared clays 2. Disaggregation of clay minerals by thermal vapor pressure shock explosion 3. Preparation of porous clay - micro-organisms structures. 4. Computer simulation of the emergence of template-directed synthesis MAHRER, YITZHAK Born 1943, Jerusalem; Ph.D. 1973, Hebrew Univ.; Lect. 1977; Sen. Lect. 1981; Assoc. Prof. 1985; Prof. 1992. E-mail: Tel: 972-8-948-9386; Fax: 972-8-947-5181 Research Interests: Mesoscale atmospheric processes, soil-plant-atmosphere relationship, and greenhouse microclimate: practical implications relating to questions of air quality problems, air-sea interaction, irrigation scheduling, and greenhouse optimal management. MUALEM, YECHEZKEL Born 1941, Baghdad; D.Sc. 1974, Technion; Lect. 1972; Assoc. Prof. (HU) 1979; Prof. 1993. E-mail: Tel: 972-8-948-9174; Fax: 972-8-947-5181 43Research Interests: 1. Flow in porous media. 2. Hydrology; soil-water relations; hysteresis. 3. Theoretical modeling of soil properties. 4. Anisotropy in unsaturated porous media; simulation of soil water regime. 5. Modeling of water extracts by roots; soil surface sealing. Rain water harvesting. Particles transport in soil. NATIV, RONIT Born 1949, Haifa; Ph.D. 1985, Ben Gurion Univ.; Lect. 1987; Sen. Lect. 1992; Assoc. Prof. 1998. E-mail: Tel: 972-8-948-9297; Fax: 972-8-947-5181 Research Interests: Arid-zone hydrology, the origin and hydrodynamics of brackish water and brine in deep aquifers, contaminant transport in porous fractured formations and urban hydrology. Research Projects: 1. Water flow and contaminant transport in fractured chalk. Funding: Ramat Hovav Industrial Council and the Ministry of Environment. Theoretical aspects funded by the European Union (chalk sites in the UK and Denmark) and The Basic Research Foundation of The Israel Academy of Sciences. 2. Urbanization and water resources. Funding: Israel and German Ministries of Science. NIR, SHLOMO Born 1934, Prague; Ph.D. 1969, Hebrew Univ.; Assoc. Prof. 1977; Prof. 1985. E-mail: Tel: 972-8-948-9172; Fax: 972-8-947-5181 Research Interests: Cation adsorption to clay particles and membranes. Interactions of organic molecules with clays. Micelle-clay systems. Formulations of herbicides for reduced leaching and photostabilization. Water purification by micelle-clay. Particle aggregation in bulk and on surfaces. Pore formation by peptides. Membrane fusion. Endocytosis of liposomes and lipid/DNA complexes. Kinetics of cell killing by free and encapsulated drugs. 44Research Projects: 1. Organo-clay interactions as a basis for environmentally safe formulations of herbicides (GIF). 2. Prevention of underground and surface water contamination due to leaching of pesticides in soil. (Ministry of Science (Tashtiot). 3. Reduction of leaching in soil of anionic herbicides (HUJ), (Contribution of Agan-Machteshim). 4. Bitter taste transduction and inhibition (with Prof. Micha Naim; BARD). 5. Characterization and optimization of anion sorption by organophilic clays (Niedersachsen). POLUBESOVA TAMARA Born 1955, Yevpatoria, former USSR; Ph.D.1981 Inst. of Soil Sci.and Photosyn. RAS; Research Scientist 1995; Sen. Research Scientist (Giladi Program) 1998; Researcher B (Kamea Program) 2001. E-mail: Tel: 972-8-9489139; Fax: 972-8-9475181 Research Interests: Physical chemistry of soils and clays; adsorption of organic cations and anions on clays and soils; sorption and interactions of anionic and non-ionic contaminants with organo-clays and micelle-clay complexes. Research projects: 1. Development of environmentally safe and economical formulations of anionic and non-ionic herbicides with reduced leaching in soil based on organo-clay complexes. 2. Design of optimized micelle-clay and organo-clay systems for water purification from organic pollutants. SHANI, URI Born 1950, Jerusalem; Ph.D. 1987; Arava R&D Sen. Scientist 1987-1997; Sen. Lect. 1997. E-mail:; Tel: 972-8-948-9362; Fax: 972-8-947-5181 Research Interests: Environmental salinity and drought stresses: yield transpiration relationships, modeling, and management of irrigation and environment protection. Drip irrigation with very low discharge: crop response and water, air, fertilizers and salt spatial response to trickle discharge and spacing and to soil type. Development of in-situ methods for the estimation of the soil hydraulic conductivity 45Research Projects: 1. Modeling plant response to deficit irrigation. Funding: BARD. 2. Modeling plant response to nitrogen under saline conditions. Funding: Ministry of Science and Chinese Academy of Sciences. 3. Modeling and plant response to micro irrigation. Funding: Irrigation Company. 4. Plant response to excessive boron under saline conditions. Funding: Arava R&D. 5. Long time effects of irrigation with waste water on the hydraulic properties of clayey soil. Funding: Ministry of Agriculture. SHENKER, MOSHE Born 1953, Kibbutz Kabri; Ph.D. 1996, Hebrew Univ.; Lect. 1997. E-mail: Tel: 972-8-948-9349; Fax: 972-8-947-5181 Research Interests: Soil chemistry and soil fertility, related to plant nutrition and environmental aspects. Research Projects: 1. Hydro-geochemistry of phosphorus in peat-soils in the Hula Valley: Chemical and environmental aspects, and manipulation of the system to reduce water contamination and eutrophication of the Kineret Lake (Sea of Galilee) 2. Development, examination and calibration of new approaches to evaluate nutrient availability for plants; Using plant and soil indexes; Application in various soils and plant-cultivars. 3. Heavy metals in soils; Plant and soil effects on the availability and uptake of these elements from a contaminated soil; Phytoremediation - using plants for site cleaning or stabilization and fixation of heavy metals. 4. Control and restraining of nitrate and phosphate release from fresh manure and sludge; application for reducing risks of water pollution and for slow release of the nutrients after incorporation to agricultural soil. SINGER, ARIEH Born 1934, Czernowitz, Romania; Ph.D. 1968, Hebrew Univ.; Lect. 1969; Sen. Lect. 1978; Assoc. Prof. 1980; Prof. 1989. Emeritus 2002. E-mail: Tel: 972-8-948-9239; Fax: 972-8-947-5181 46Research Interests: Palygorskite-sepiolite formation in soils and sediments. Soil formation on basalts. Clay formations under arid conditions. Hydrothermal clay minerals in oceanic sediments. Weathering products of tuffs and volcanic glass. Atmospheric dust deposition effects on soils. Paleoclimatic interpretation of clay minerals in soils and weathering profiles. Coal fly-ash uses. Research Projects: 1. Atmospheric dust deposition rates and dust composition on the Dead Sea. Funding: Ministry of Energy, Niedersachsen, Germany. 2. Protection of land and settlements in arid regions (Aral Sea) from contamination by atmospheric dust. Funding: US AID-CDR. 3. Hydrothermal clays in oceanic sediments. 4. Rheological properties of palygorskite. Funding: Hohenheim University. WAKSHAL, ELIYAHU Born 1935, Tel Aviv; Ph.D. 1980, Hebrew Univ.; Sen. Teacher 1987. E-mail: Tel: 972-8-9489853; Fax: 972-8-947-5181 Research Interests: Hydrogeology; geology; hydrochemistry. WALLACH, RONY Born 1953, Tel Aviv; D.Sc. 1985, Technion; Lect. 1988; Sen. Lect. 1991; Assoc. Prof. 1997. E-mail: Tel: 972-8-948-9170; Fax: 972-8-947-5181 Research Interests: Irrigation uniformity and its effect on crop yield. Irrigation and fertigation management of soil-less culture. Irrigation automatic control - parameters, identification and measurement. Transport of chemicals in structured soils - preferential flow and fingering. The pollution of water bodies (reservoirs, lakes) by soil applied chemicals which are transferred to irrigation or rainfall induced surface runoff. Lateral flow within the unsaturated soil and its role in surface runoff generation. 47Research Projects: 1. Determination of an irrigation uniformity coefficient for water-depth as it is available to roots rather than measured at the soil surface. 2. Groundwater pollution due to preferential flow in the unsaturated zone. 3. Relationships between hydraulic soil water parameters and their availability to roots. 4. Efficient irrigation for soil-less culture due to the water and air retention and other physical characteristics of the medium. 5. Modeling the convective chemical transfer from soil solution to surface runoff. 6. Preferential flow in water-repellent soils.


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