soil 4213 bioen 4213 history of using indirect measures for detecting nutrient status

Download SOIL 4213 BIOEN 4213 History of Using Indirect Measures for detecting Nutrient Status

Post on 12-Jan-2016

29 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

SOIL 4213 BIOEN 4213 History of Using Indirect Measures for detecting Nutrient Status. Oklahoma State University. Field Element Size. Area which provides the most precise measure of the available nutrient where the level of that nutrient changes with distance. FES should theoretically identify - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

TRANSCRIPT

  • SOIL 4213BIOEN 4213

    History of Using Indirect Measures for detecting Nutrient Status

    Oklahoma State University

  • Field Element SizeArea which provides the most precise measure of the available nutrient where the level of that nutrient changes with distance

  • FES should theoretically identify1. The smallest resolution where cause and effect relationships can be identified2. The precise resolution where variances between paired samples of the same size (area) become unrelated and where heterogeneity can be recognized3. The resolution where misapplication could pose a risk to the environment4. The treated resolution where net economic return is achieved.5. The resolution where differences in yield potential may exist

  • ReviewScience: 283:310-316By 2020 global demand for rice, wheat, and maize will increase 40%People have been predicting yield ceilings for millennia, and theyve never been right Matthew Reynolds CIMMYTSupercharging Photosynthesis: Reproduce the C4 cycle in riceRole of Biotechnology in Precision Agriculture

  • Sunlight reachingearthChlorophyll bB-CarotenePhycoerythrinPhycocyaninChlorophyll a300400500600700800Wavelength, nmAbsorptionSPAD 501, 502(430, 750)Lehninger, Nelson and CoxAbsorption of Visible Lightby Photopigments

  • VISIBLE Color Absorbed VISIBLE Color TransmittedVioletBlueGreenYellowOrange RedShort wavelengthHigh frequencyHigh energyLong wavelengthLow frequencyLow energy0.01103804504955705906207501x1061x1011 wavelength, nmGamma RaysX-RaysUltravioletInfraredMicrowaves and short radioRadio, FM, TVElectronicVibrationalRotationaltransitionstransitionstransitionsYellow-greenYellowVioletBlueGreen-blueBlue-green

  • Short wavelengthHigh energyLong wavelengthLow energy0.0110380450495570590620750 wavelength, nmX-RaysUltravioletInfraredChlorophyll bB-CarotenePhycoerythrinPhycocyaninChlorophyll a

  • Near-Infrared AbsorptionMajor Amino and Methyl Analytical Bands and Peak Positions

  • Sensor DesignPlant and Soil targetMicro-Processor, A/D Conversion, and Signal ProcessingUltra-SonicSensorPhoto-DetectorOptical FiltersCollimation

  • History of Using Indirect Measures for Detecting Nutrient StatusNIRS analyzer which is connected to a computer focuses infrared rays on a prepared sample of dried pulverized plant material. The instrument measures protein, fiber and other plant components because each one reflects infrared rays differently. Samples and standards (previously characterized) and then mathematically compared

  • History of Using Indirect Measures for Detecting Nutrient StatusNIRS (near infrared reflectance spectroscopy)Measuring the vibrations caused by the stretching and bending of hydrogen bonds with carbon oxygen and nitrogen.Each of the major organic components of a forage or other feed has light absorption characteristics.These absorption characteristics cause the reflectance that enables us to identify plant composition

  • Chlorophyll MetersMinolta: SPAD (soil plant analysis development unit ) 501 & 502www.specmeters.com/aneb.htmhttp://agronomy.ucdavis.edu/uccerice/afs/agfs0394.htmhttp://www.store.ripplecreek.com/category-greenformulas.html

    light absorbance (light attenuation) at 430 (violet) and 750 nm (red/NIR transition) no tissue collectionLeaf chlorophyll (SPAD) vs Leaf N concentration and NO3-N

  • Short wavelengthHigh energyLong wavelengthLow energy0.0110380450495570590620750 wavelength, nmX-RaysUltravioletInfraredChlorophyll bB-CarotenePhycoerythrinPhycocyaninChlorophyll a

  • On-the-go-chemical-analysesSoilDoctor selective ion electrode mounted on the shank of an anhydrous ammonia applicatorElectromagnetic induction (EMI)http://oldsci.eiu.edu/physics/DDavis/1160/Ch21Ind/Farady.htmlVERIS measurements (Missouri)predicting grain yieldsand depositiondepth to clay pan

  • Use of EM as a data layer to better predict yield potential

  • On-the-go-chemical-analysesOn-the-go sensors for organic matter and ground slope (Yang, Shropshire, Peterson and Whitcraft)

    Satellite imagesAerial images (NIR sensitive film)

  • ImplicationsReports of improved correlation between indirect measures and yield (EMI) versus soil test parametersSoil testing (process of elimination)no single parameter is expected to be correlated with yieldK vs yield P vs yieldN vs yieldpH vs yield

  • Spectral RadianceRadiance: the rate of flow of light energy reflected from a surfaceMeasuring the radiance of light (at several wavelengths) that is reflected from the plant canopy Photodiodes detect light intensity (or radiance) of certain wavelengths (interference filters, e.g., red, green, NIR) that are reflected from plants and soil.

  • 380450495570590620750 wavelength, nmChlorophyll bB-CarotenePhycoerythrinPhycocyaninChlorophyll aPhotodiodeInterference FilterWhite Light

  • Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) = NIR ref red ref / NIR ref + red ref(up down)excellent predictor of plant N uptakeUnits:N uptake, kg ha-1

    Chart1

    25.70.441050.441050.441050.441050.441050.441050.441050.44105

    190.419320.419320.419320.419320.419320.419320.419320.41932

    250.404140.404140.404140.404140.404140.404140.404140.40414

    26.40.470130.470130.470130.470130.470130.470130.470130.47013

    36.40.68730.68730.68730.68730.68730.68730.68730.6873

    36.60.639060.639060.639060.639060.639060.639060.639060.63906

    54.80.752820.752820.752820.752820.752820.752820.752820.75282

    370.730230.730230.730230.730230.730230.730230.730230.73023

    53.80.823130.823130.823130.823130.823130.823130.823130.82313

    0.781670.781670.781670.781670.781670.781670.781670.781670.78167

    41.20.76090.76090.76090.76090.76090.76090.76090.7609

    54.60.773940.773940.773940.773940.773940.773940.773940.77394

    26.90.441630.441630.441630.441630.441630.441630.441630.44163

    22.40.393270.393270.393270.393270.393270.393270.393270.39327

    41.50.709610.709610.709610.709610.709610.709610.709610.70961

    28.60.437720.437720.437720.437720.437720.437720.437720.43772

    26.60.57790.57790.57790.57790.57790.57790.57790.5779

    61.90.763230.763230.763230.763230.763230.763230.763230.76323

    36.30.551780.551780.551780.551780.551780.551780.551780.55178

    73.70.855730.855730.855730.855730.855730.855730.855730.85573

    46.80.6510.6510.6510.6510.6510.6510.6510.651

    46.30.713070.713070.713070.713070.713070.713070.713070.71307

    56.90.815470.815470.815470.815470.815470.815470.815470.81547

    48.50.714120.714120.714120.714120.714120.714120.714120.71412

    22.40.429230.429230.429230.429230.429230.429230.429230.42923

    27.80.417150.417150.417150.417150.417150.417150.417150.41715

    34.70.582170.582170.582170.582170.582170.582170.582170.58217

    25.20.422020.422020.422020.422020.422020.422020.422020.42202

    32.80.59230.59230.59230.59230.59230.59230.59230.5923

    37.20.713580.713580.713580.713580.713580.713580.713580.71358

    39.50.611090.611090.611090.611090.611090.611090.611090.61109

    380.640530.640530.640530.640530.640530.640530.640530.64053

    65.80.793560.793560.793560.793560.793560.793560.793560.79356

    28.70.516760.516760.516760.516760.516760.516760.516760.51676

    55.30.820750.820750.820750.820750.820750.820750.820750.82075

    97.50.850320.850320.850320.850320.850320.850320.850320.85032

    0.4692620.39966839680.469260.469260.469260.469260.469260.469260.46926

    0.5422929.68507597440.542290.542290.542290.542290.542290.542290.54229

    0.6120226.94867022850.612020.612020.612020.612020.612020.612020.61202

    0.4930114.6760906970.493010.493010.493010.493010.493010.493010.49301

    0.5075719.17177425860.507570.507570.507570.507570.507570.507570.50757

    0.4723413.0586532630.472340.472340.472340.472340.472340.472340.47234

    0.4596611.946663960.459660.459660.459660.459660.459660.459660.45966

    0.3812710.30290610270.381270.381270.381270.381270.381270.381270.38127

    0.4333910.97747614660.433390.433390.433390.433390.433390.433390.43339

    0.3327911.24247900160.332790.332790.332790.332790.332790.332790.33279

    0.5712918.62416883710.571290.571290.571290.571290.571290.571290.57129

    0.6444717.90410771070.644470.644470.644470.644470.644470.644470.64447

    0.4421112.87541450270.442110.442110.442110.442110.442110.442110.44211

    0.432799.75298491550.432790.432790.432790.432790.432790.432790.43279

    0.5706923.8858130650.570690.570690.570690.570690.570690.570690.57069

    0.5268419.76063738880.526840.526840.526840.526840.526840.526840.52684

    0.4244414.10105846690.424440.424440.424440.424440.424440.424440.42444

    0.7404639.51273918590.740460.740460.740460.740460.740460.740460.74046

    0.590850.590850.590850.590850.590850.590850.590850.590850.59085

    0.7539746.6675991690.753970.753970.753970.753970.753970.753970.75397

    0.4893315.2798051930.489330.489330.489330.489330.489330.489330.48933

    0.5012822.85576078020.501280.501280.501280.501280.501280.501280.50128

    0.7614450.26598881920.761440.761440.761440.761440.761440.761440.76144

    0.4271218.46297809660.427120.427120.427120.427120.427120.427120.42712

    0.31778.36878390660.31770.31770.31770.31770.31770.31770.3177

    0.7154237.22927814140.715420.715420.715420.715420.715420.715420.71542

    0.375787.69334951620.375780.375780.375780.375780.375780.375780.37578

    0.6057335.6312436480.605730.605730.605730.605730.605730.605730.60573

    0.4904119.66430326780.490410.490410.490410.490410.490410.490410.49041

    0.3666415.38929532450.366640.366640.366640.366640.366640.366640.36664

    0.3898518.66632910910.389850.3898