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  • Slide 1
  • Smuggling of Migrants from India to Europe and in particular to the UK: A Study on Punjab & Haryana 11 March 2010, Chandigarh K. C. Saha, IAS Development Commissioner, Government of Bihar
  • Slide 2
  • Case Study from Punjab/Haryana (Methodology) Analysis of over 800 immigration-offence-related records for 2005, 2006 & 2007 Police cases recorded against agents in different police stations in Punjab Interviews with deportees and/or their family members Interviews with agents as well as police officers who investigated these cases against the agents Interviews with co-villagers/public representatives in more than 30 villages Case studies on irregular migration through investigators Study visit to the UK and France
  • Slide 3
  • FINDINGS: 1.Trends and volume of irregular migration 2.Identification of areas prone to irregular migration 3.Profile of irregular migrants, reasons for irregular migration and destination countries 4.Profile of agents, sub-agents and their modus operandi
  • Slide 4
  • 1. Trends and volume of irregular migration Over 20,000 youths from Punjab attempt irregular migration every year. It has not only spread to new areas in Punjab but also to the neighbouring states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir In the past, irregular migration was confined to few caste groups, now it has spread to other caste groups also Almost half (47%) of the cases of irregular migration relate to destination countries in Europe
  • Slide 5
  • 1.Trends and volume of irregular migration 2.Identification of areas prone to irregular migration 3.Profile of irregular migrants, reasons for irregular migration and destination countries 4.Profile of agents, sub-agents and their modus operandi FINDINGS:
  • Slide 6
  • Map of Punjab Emerging High
  • Slide 7
  • Map of Haryana Emerging High
  • Slide 8
  • 1.Trends and volume of irregular migration 2.Identification of areas prone to irregular migration 3.Profile of irregular migrants, reasons for irregular migration and destination countries 4.Profile of agents, sub-agents and their modus operandi FINDINGS:
  • Slide 9
  • 3. Profile of irregular migrants 84% of irregular migrants are from rural areas Youths were mostly from agricultural families who can afford high cost of irregular migration More than 90% irregular migrants are males About 55% of irregular migrants are in the age group of 21-30 A substantial number of irregular migrants are also in the age group of 31-40 Irregular migrants are noted to have poor educational attainment
  • Slide 10
  • Reasons for irregular migration High unemployment rate General attitude of youth that migration to the other countries is the best alternative Potential irregular migrants consider other successful migrants as their role models Irregular migration not at all a stigma amongst families Once a family is able to send someone abroad legally or illegally, family status increases Social networks promote chain migration Perception amongst migrants that once one is able to reach a destination country, chances of getting caught and deported is remote.
  • Slide 11
  • Destination countries Destination countries are varied. Irregular migrants have attempted to go to 57 destination countries. Belgium is also a destination country for irregular migrants, however, in Europe the UK is the most favoured destination A substantial number of cases of irregular migration to Italy, France and Spain were noted.
  • Slide 12
  • 1.Trends and volume of irregular migration 2.Identification of areas prone to irregular migration 3.Profile of irregular migrants, reasons for irregular migration and destination countries 4.Profile of agents, sub-agents and their modus operandi FINDINGS:
  • Slide 13
  • 4. Profile of agents and sub-agents Proliferation of agents in Punjab due to high demand of their services Many of the agents in Punjab are actually sub-agents of principal agents based in cities in Punjab and also Delhi A substantial number of agents were in the age group of 21-25. They are the new entrants in the business. Agents in Punjab were found to work in groups with well established links with agents in Delhi Carrier agents accompanied irregular migrants in many cases. Some of the carrier agents were females who accompanied minor children
  • Slide 14
  • Modus operandi of agents 1.Jacket substitution of passports, photo substitution, fake foreign visas, re-stitched passports, forged passports, forged residence permits, exchange of boarding cards in security areas, forging of POE stamp etc 2.Forged visas of 41 countries had been used. Many instances of forged visas for Italy, Greece, France, Spain and the UK were noted. 3.Many instances of forged residence permits of Portugal, Spain, Italy and the UK were noted. 4.Agents made use of various transit countries to take migrants legally to the transit countries before their irregular migration.
  • Slide 15
  • 5.Agents have used various routes some of which are traditional whereas the others are emerging routes 6.Routes via a country in Central Asia or a country in West and North Africa are emerging routes 7.Fees for USA and Canada was much higher than any country in Europe. It was more than US$ 50,000. For destination to the UK the fees were higher compared to the other countries in Europe. 8.Agents have become highly professional and they operate through well-knit networks. 9.Services of agents are utilized even by public representatives and other responsible citizens Modus operandi of agents (part 2)
  • Slide 16
  • Recommendations: 1.Independent legislation to check migrant smuggling 2.Specialized counter smuggling law enforcement units 3.Database on smuggling 4.Training and capacity building of law enforcement machinery 5.Awareness campaigns in identified areas 6.Regional focus on irregular migration from South Asia 7.Close cooperation between countries of source, transit and destination
  • Slide 17
  • Thank you www.unodc.org/southasia

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