slr photography camera settings and exposure. what is exposure? in photography, exposure is the...

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  • SLR PhotographyCamera Settings and Exposure

  • What is exposure?In photography, exposure is the total amount of light allowed to fall on the film (or electronic sensor in the case of digital photography) during the process of taking a photograph. Exposure is measured in exposure value (ev), with higher values denoting more light.

  • How is exposure controlled?Three factors control the exposure of the image:Shutter SpeedAperture (f-stop)Film Speed (ISO)

  • Shutter SpeedShutter speed refers to how long the camera shutter opens up to let light in. It is expressed in fractions of a second or full seconds (i.e 1/60th, 1/500th, 1/1000th).The higher the number, the faster the shutter. A faster shutter means less light is let in.

  • Shutter SpeedFast shutter speeds are used to freeze the action, e.g. for sports or action photography.Slow shutter speeds are used when a blurring effect is desired e.g. for the classic waterfall shot or for nighttime traffic pictures.

  • Fast Shutter Speed

  • Fast Shutter Speed

  • Slow Shutter Speed

  • Slow Shutter Speed

  • ApertureAperture (or f-stop) refers to how much light is let into the camera. There are a series of blades built in to the camera lens that open and close to let more or less light in.Aperture settings are standardized, and expressed as numbers such as 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11. The lower the number, the wider the aperture/more light let in.

  • ApertureWider apertures cause a shallow depth of field. Depth of field refers to the area of the photograph that is in full focus.Wide apertures allow you to have an out of focus background for more aesthetically pleasing portraits.

  • Shallow Depth of Field

  • Shallow Depth of Field

  • High Depth of Field

  • High Depth of Field

  • Film Speed (ISO)Film Speed refers to the sensitivity of the film or image sensor to light that is, how fast it is able to capture the image. Expressed in ISO numbers e.g. 50, 100, 200, 400, 800.The higher the number, the faster the image is captured - faster film tends to be grainier though.

  • Film Grain

  • Digital Noise

  • Setting ExposureAutomatic (P) Camera DecidesShutter Priority (Tv) You set Shutter, camera sets ApertureAperture Priority (Av) You set Aperture, camera sets ShutterFull Manual (M) You set both

  • Under and Over ExposureCamera sets exposure based on 18% grey reflectivenessOverexposure occurs when too much light is let in to camera picture is brightUnderexposure occurs when not enough light is let in picture is dark

  • Overexposed

  • Underexposed

  • Difficult Exposure SituationsSubject in front of bright window hard to get even exposure (subject too dark or background too bright)Taking pictures on snow or ice Camera is fooled, snow may look greyish.

  • Overexposure