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  • Slide 1
  • Slide 1 of 40 Most numerous organisms on Earth
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  • Slide 2 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Most Wanted and Least Wanted PostersMost Wanted and Least Wanted Posters
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  • Slide 3 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall BACTERIA: Most numerous organisms on Earth 1 st forms of life on Earth All are prokaryotic General Traits of all prokaryotes: Lack a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Unicellular (separate or in a colony) Can be autotrophic or heterotrophic Are microscopic 300 side by side = printed period
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  • Slide 4 of 40 Bacteri is found EVERYWHERE fFood Air Soil On and in our body On all objects
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  • Slide 5 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 430,000 year old bacteria found in a fresh water lake in Antarctica Deep Ocean
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  • Slide 6 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Some bacteria are: 1. Aerobic -requires oxygen 2. Anaerobic -lives in the absence of oxygen Example: -Clostridium botulinum -Causes botulism / food poison -found improperly canned foods, meat and shell fish
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  • Slide 7 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cell wall: -made up of Peptidoglygcan (protein/carb combo) -protects and gives shape to cell. -antibiotics inhibit bacteria from forming cell walls so future bacteria can be destroyed by your immune system Cell wall
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  • Slide 8 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cell Wall Cell membrane Cell membrane: -regulates what goes into and out of the cell -contains enzymes that aid in all cellular reactions
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  • Slide 9 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Outer covering that is sticky. Allows bacteria to adhere to surfaces and prevents WBCs from engulfing them. Cell Wall Cell membrane Capsule
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  • Slide 10 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cell Wall Cell membrane Capsule Cytoplasm Cytoplasm: -liquid solution which suspends DNA and ribosomes
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  • Slide 11 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cell Wall Cell membrane Capsule Cytoplasm Ribosomes Ribosomes: -uses DNAs instructions to make all proteins
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  • Slide 12 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cell Wall Cell membrane Capsule Cytoplasm Ribosomes DNA DNA: -genetic material -1 loop of DNA -known as the nucleoid
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  • Slide 13 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Plasmid: -found in some bacteria -small loops of DNA -code for extra but not essential traits. Ex/ antibiotic resistence Cell Wall Cell membrane Capsule Cytoplasm Ribosomes DNA Plasmid
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  • Slide 14 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cell Wall Cell membrane Capsule Cytoplasm Ribosomes DNA Plasmid Sex pili Sex pili: -short proteins which bacteria use to pick up plasmids from environment or from another bacteria cell
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  • Slide 15 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Cell Wall Cell membrane Capsule Cytoplasm Ribosomes DNA Plasmid Sex pili Flagella Flagella: -1 or more long whip like tails used for movement.
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  • Slide 16 of 40 Movement
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  • Slide 17 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Classifying Prokaryotes E. coli, a Typical Eubacterium Cell wall Cell Membrane Ribosomes Pili DNA Flagellum Capsule
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  • Slide 18 of 40 Endospores Form when a bacterium produces a thick internal wall that encloses its DNA and some of its cytoplasm during unfavorable growth conditions. Spores can remain dormant for months or years. Spores allow bacteria to survive harsh conditions. (extreme heat, lack of moisture, etc)
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  • Slide 19 of 40 Ideal Reproductive/Growth Conditions -moisture -warmth -food source -darkness Food and moisture Warm and darkness Ideal warm, dark and moist environment with plenty of food? The human body
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  • Slide 20 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Bacteria can be: 1. Heterotrophic -uses other organisms as a food source.
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  • Slide 21 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 2. Saprophytic: -live off dead matter -bacteria is the #1 decomposer 3. Autotrophic: -makes their own food through photosynthesis.
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  • Slide 22 of 40 Reproduction Binary fission Binary Fission Bacteria copies its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells. Form of asexual reproduction Takes about 20 min. in bacteria.
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  • Slide 23 of 40 Conjugation During conjugation, a hollow bridge made up of the sex pili forms between two bacterial cells, and genes move from one cell to the other.
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  • Slide 25 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Transformation: When bacteria use their sex pili to pick up DNA from their environment.
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  • Slide 26 of 40 The GOOD.. To make medicines Oil eating bacteria To make food #1 decomposer Sewage treatment
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  • Slide 27 of 40 The BAD.. Makes us sick/causes illnesses STDs: Gonorrhea, Syphilis Chlamydia, Botulism, Lymes Disease, Pinkeye, Tuberculosis, Pneumonia
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  • Slide 28 of 40 Can they be stopped? Refrigeration Freezing Heat: canning, cooking, sterilization Dehydration Antiseptics Antibiotics
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  • Slide 29 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall You go to the doctors with a sore throat..now what happens????
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  • Slide 30 of 40 The doctor has to classify the bacteria to know how to treat it. 1. The doctor cultures/grows the bacteria.
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  • Slide 31 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Identifying Prokaryotes 2. The doctor determines the shape of the bacteria. Bacilli Rod-shaped prokaryotes are called bacilli.
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  • Slide 32 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Identifying Prokaryotes Spherical prokaryotes are called cocci. Cocci
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  • Slide 33 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Identifying Prokaryotes Spiral and corkscrew-shaped prokaryotes are called spirilla. Spirilla
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  • Slide 34 of 40 3. The doctor determines the colony formation: Strept mean grows in a long chain. Staph means grows in a cluster
  • Slide 35
  • Slide 35 of 40 Can you identify these bacteria? Steptococcus Staphococcus
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  • Slide 36 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 4. The doctor stains the bacteria. Two different types of cell walls are found in Eubacteria. A method called gram staining tells them apart.
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  • Slide 37 of 40 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Gram-positive bacteria have thick cell walls with large amounts of peptidoglycan. -stains purple -produces exotoxins -released during life of bacteria Gram-negative bacteria have thinner cell walls inside an outer lipid layer. -stains pink -produces endotoxins -released after bacteria dies Each type treated with different antibiotics
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